Dissident AIDS Database

Antibody testsNegative AIDS casesICLGeneral
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in a west African population.
 Djomand G, Diaby L, N'Gbichi JM, Coulibaly D, Kadio A, Yapi A, Kanga JM, Boateng E, Diallo K, Kestens L, et al.
  Retrospective review of databases and prospective case-control study. Project RETRO-CI, an AIDS research project in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, a University Hospital and tuberculosis treatment and maternal and child health centres in Abidjan. We conducted a retrospective review of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts performed between 1991 and 1992 on hospitalized medical patients, outpatients with tuberculosis, and women participating in a study of HIV-1 and HIV-2 mother-to-child transmission. A prospective case-control study was conducted in 1992 to examine the relationship between HIV-negative CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion and wasting syndrome (wasting and chronic diarrhoea and/or chronic fever). In the retrospective data review, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts < 300 x 10(6)/l were found in... 0.4% of 263 healthy women after delivery.
  AIDS. 1994 Jun;8(6):843-7.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--an analysis of five patients with unexplained opportunistic infections
 Spira, T. J., B. M. Jones, J. K. Nicholson, R. B. Lal, T. Rowe, A. C. Mawle, C. B. Lauter, J. A. Shulman, and R. A. Monson.
  "In these five patients, there was no evidence of either HIV or HTLV infection. All the patients had both low percentages and low counts of CD4+ T cells, with relative increases in percentages, but not counts, of CD8+ cells."
  N Engl J Med, 1993, 328(6):386-92.1993
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection
 Duncan, R. A., C. F. von Reyn, G. M. Alliegro, Z. Toossi, A. M. Sugar, and S. M. Levitz.
  "We describe four HIV - patients, each of whom presented with severe opportunistic infections and was found to have idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia..." The opportunistic infections at presentation included Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cryptococcal meningitis (two patients, one with concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis), and histoplasma-induced brain abscess. During 10 to 68 months of observation, none of the four patients had evidence of infection with HIV type 1 or 2 or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II on the basis of epidemiologic, serologic, or polymerase-chain-reaction studies or culture, nor was there any detectable reverse transcriptase activity... all the patients had severe, persistent CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia (range, 12 to 293 cells per cubic millimeter)..."
  N Engl J Med. 328(6):393-8, 19931993
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia with lethal Salmonella typhimurium sepsis
 Burg, S., W. Weber, and C. Kucherer.
  "In April 1991, a then 43-year-old woman fell ill with a systemic cryptococcal infection which responded well to antimycotic treatment. Four months later she was found to have a T-helper cell deficiency (48/microliters, 15%). Since August 1992 she noted an increased tendency towards infections and had recurrent fever bouts over 4 weeks, which led to her hospitalization in January 1993. Repeated HIV tests were negative... Lymphocyte differentiation revealed absolute and relative reduction in the number of CD4-lymphocytes (158/microliters; 18%), retrospectively providing the diagnosis of idiopathic CD4-lymphocytopenia."
  Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 1994, 119(27):956-8.1994
CD4+ lymphocytopenia due to common variable immunodeficiency mimicking AIDS
 Kaczmarski, R. S., A. D. Webster, J. Moxham, F. Davison, S. Sutherland, and G. J. Mufti.
  "There are an increasing number of published reports of patients with acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection, who have been labelled as having "idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia". The case is reported here of a young man who presented with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), CD4+ lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinaemia attributable to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The presentation of this condition, with many of the clinical and laboratory features of AIDS, highlights CVID as a diagnosis to be considered in the differential diagnosis of CD4+ lymphocytopenia."
  J Clin Pathol, 1994, 47(4):364-6.1994
Profound and possibly primary "idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia" in a patient with fungal infections.
 Seligmann, M., B. Autran, C. Rabian, F. Ferchal, D. Olive, M. Echard, and E. Oksenhendler.
  "A profound and long-lasting reduction in circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes ( 80/microliters) was found in a 37-year-old man (without known risk factors for HIV infection) presenting with recurrent oral candidiasis who subsequently developed cryptococcal meningitis. Infection with HIV was ruled out by serological and virological studies. In vitro and in vivo cell-mediated immunity was severely impaired. Abnormal phenotypic patterns of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were consistently observed."
  Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 1994, 71(2):203-7.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia associated with chronic pruritic papules.
 Wakeel, R. A., S. J. Urbaniak, S. S. Armstrong, H. F. Sewell, R. Herriot, N. Kernohan, and M. I. White.
  "This is a case report and family study of a 65-year-old man with chronic prurigo lesions, in whom we demonstrated a selective deficiency of circulating T-helper/inducer lymphocytes (CD4+), in the absence of any apparent predisposing disease. He is seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I and HTLV-II), and fulfils the criteria for the syndrome of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia... His peripheral total lymphocyte count has been persistently abnormal since it was first measured in 1969. He has a marked CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia."
  Br J Dermatol, 1994, 131(3):371-5.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia: analysis of a patient with selective IgA deficiency and no evidence of HIV infection.
 Vertes, D., M. D. Linden, and J. L. Carey.
  "We present a previously unreported condition of an asymptomatic individual with CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia and a selective IgA deficiency. The subject is a 35- year-old healthy white male with a documented 5-year history of low CD4+ T cell counts. He has been repeatedly HIV seronegative and has no risk factors for HIV infection."
  Cytometry, 1995, 22(1):40-4.1995
Non-HIV AIDS: nature and strategies for its management.
 Bird AG.
  [Trying to distinguish ICL from AIDS] "Although groups at risk of HIV infection appear to be over-represented amongst the early case reports, these almost certainly represent an ascertainment bias. ... Many of these cases, had they occurred in the general population, might otherwise have escaped detection." The problem with this line of reasoning is that it also applies equally well to HIV and AIDS, because HIV tests were only routinely given to people in the identified risk groups. "The other issue that needs to be considered is whether the low CD4 ounts reported in individual patients could be secondary to their particular infections rather than responsible for them." The problem here is that people diagnosed HIV-positive are even more likely than others to have lowered CD4 counts "secondary to their individual infections", so this is a very poor distinguishing feature
  Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1996;37(B):171-183.1996
CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in severe pulmonary tuberculosis without evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
 Pilheu JA, De Salvo MC, Gonzalez J, Rey D, Elias MC, Ruppi MC.
  "A large public hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. To determine the number of blood CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. Seventeen patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis (SPT), with a mean age of 44.1 years, all HIV negative, had on admission lost 20% or more of their normal weight. Ten male HIV negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PT), with a mean age of 25.2 years, in good general condition, acted as a control group. Patients from both groups had a blood CD4/CD8 count before treatment. In the SPT patients, the CD4/CD8 count before treatment yielded a mean of 341.25 +/- 142.73/ mm3 for CD4 and 259.33 +/- 100.89/mm3 for CD8. Three patients died a few weeks after starting treatment; on admission they had 180,220 and 280 CD4/ mm3, respectively. Patients in good general condition yielded 721.40 +/- 272.20 for CD4 (P < 0.01, t = 4.216) and 416.67 for CD8. At the same time, five normal volunteers, with a mean age of 35.60 +/- 10.45 years, had mean CD4 and CD8 counts of 906 +/- 75.37 and 360 +/- 190.79, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, we feel that it is of value to measure the CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts in STP patients with a compromised general condition and with significant weight loss at the beginning of treatment."
  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997 Oct;1(5):422-61997
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient.
 Hanamura I, Wakita A, Harada S, Tsuboi K, Komatsu H, Banno S, Iwaki O, Takeuchi G, Nitta M, Ueda R.
  "We report a case of idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia with malignant lymphoma (diffuse large, B-cell type) for which there was no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or type 2 infection and no other known causes of immunodeficiency. She had never suffered from any opportunistic infection until the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was made, and the CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia persisted after complete remission of the lymphoma. As the clinical features and immune status of the patient differed from those associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related syndrome, we conclude that immunodeficiency in this case did not contribute to the opportunistic infection but may have been associated with the genesis of malignant lymphoma."
  Intern Med 1997 Sep;36(9):643-61997
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an unusual complication of idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia.
 Cook MA, Bareford D, Kumararatne DS.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Hosp Med 1998 Jul;59(7):5821998
Idiopathic CD4(+)-T-lymphocytopenia
 Van de Ven MJ, Lenders JW, Baas AA, Holdrinet AC, van der Meer JW.
  "Three patients, two men aged 27 and 33 years and one woman aged 31 years, developed several opportunistic infections without presence of HIV infection. Patient A died after suffering Candida stomatitis, extrapulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus infection and Aspergillus pneumonia; patient B recovered from a disseminated M. kansasii infection; patient C suffered from verrucae planae. These patients had CD4(+)-T lymphocytopenia, a shortage of helper T cells. Idiopathic CD4(+)-T lymphocytopenia is a heterogeneous pathological condition with normal serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Treatment consists of combating and preventing infections."
  Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1997 Feb 8;141(6):298-3011997
CD4 lymphocytopenia in patients without significant clinical pathology
 Cascio G, Massobrio AM, Cascio B, Bosso E, Anania A.
  "There are different causes of CD4 lymphocytopenia: neoplastic pathology, immunosuppressive therapy or other iatrogenic forms. In addition to these causes, an important role is certainly played by HIV infection which, at the AIDS stage, constantly accompanies progressive CD4 lymphocytopenia, with or without affecting the other lymphocyte components. CD4 lymphocyte deficits not correlated to HIV infection are relatively rare and are not always accompanied by progressive clinical manifestations of immunodeficiency. In the recent past an idiopathic form of CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) was recognised whose diagnostic criteria were defined by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta. Cases of ICL association with hepatitis C virus infection have been reported and anomalies partially shared by subjects suffering from common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (CVH) have been reported in some ICL carriers. The CD4 deficit in these patients is not associated with other cellular and/or humoral immunological anomalies and the clinical manifestations, essentially of scant importance, have not shown signs of progression towards severe immunodeficiency syndromes. The authors report 4 subjects with major CD4 deficit whose clinical characteristics do not match idiopathic lymphocytopenia and specific serological tests have excluded HIV infection. No known causes of CD4 lymphocytopenia have been found in these patients and they do not present major signs of clinical damage"
  Minerva Med 1996 Nov;87(11):539-441996
CD4+ lymphocytopenia syndrome without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Study on 4 patients
 Navarro V, Tuset C, Gimeno C.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Med Clin (Barc) 1996 Jun 22;107(4):1571996
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia with opportunistic infection and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
 Quiles I, Anaut P, Cibrian F, Gainzarain J, Vega L, Andia A.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  J Intern Med 1995 Aug;238(2):183-41995
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in two patients.
 Ostrowski, M., I. E. Salit, W. L. Gold, D. Sutton, M. L. Montpetit, D. Lepine, and T. Salas.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Cmaj. 149(11):1679-83. 1993.1993
Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia [letter]
 Dunn, D., and M. L. Newell.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Pediatr Infect Dis J. 12(8):705. 19931993
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare with transient CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia without HIV infection [letter]
 Cathebras, P. J., K. Bouchou, and H. Rousset.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Eur J Med. 2(8):509-10. 19931993
T-cell subsets in health, infectious disease, and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia
 Laurence, J.
  To update our knowledge about normal absolute values for CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets and to show how these values are influenced by infectious disease. These data are discussed in the context of a newly identified syndrome, idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia and severe unexplained human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative immune suppression (ICL/SUHIS)... The effects of certain bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections; analytic variance; and biologic factors on T-lymphocyte subsets must be considered in assessing such values in health and disease. Quantitative T-cell abnormalities secondary to advanced HIV infection may be dissociated from physiologic changes, congenital disorders, and most other conditions by documentation of absolute CD4 counts of less than 400/mm3, a progressive depletion of CD4 cells, and a CD4:CD8 ratio of less than 1.0. Designation of ICL/SUHIS as a new syndrome, dependent solely on CD4 cell count, raises the possibility that persons with an extraordinary diversity of conditions, including those with stable, "physiologic" CD4 lymphopenia, will be given the diagnosis.
  Ann Intern Med. 119(1):55-62. 1993.1993
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia: a quantitative view [letter].
 Reichert, T. A.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Lancet. 341(8845):636. 1993.1993
Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in a patient with mycosis fungoides
 Grossman, D., D. E. Lewis, Z. K. Ballas, and M. Duvic.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  J Am Acad Dermatol. 31(2 Pt 1):275-6. 1994.1994
Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia
 McLane, N. J., J. J. Weems, Jr., and M. V. Antworth.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Clin Infect Dis. 18(6):1012-3. 19941994
Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferon gamma. A preliminary report.
 Holland, S. M., E. M. Eisenstein, D. B. Kuhns, M. L. Turner, T. A. Fleisher, W. Strober, and J. I. Gallin
  "We studied seven patients with refractory, disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections who were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Three patients were from a family predisposed to the development of Mycobacterium avium complex infections; four patients had idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia "
  N Engl J Med. 330(19):1348-55. 1994.1994
Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia. Case follow-up over 5 years
 Baumgarten, R., and R. von Baehr.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 88(5-6):429-32. 1994.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia: a review and current perspective.
 Heredia, A., I. K. Hewlett, V. Soriano, and J. S. Epstein.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Transfus Med Rev. 8(4):223-31. 1994.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia in New Jersey.
 Laraque, F., and D. Sosin.
  Ten persons with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) were reported in 1992. No common clinical or epidemiologic characteristics or evidence of HIV infection were found. It is unclear whether ICL is a syndrome of undetermined etiology or an immunologic manifestation of various diseases.
  N J Med. 91(9):604-6. 1994.1994
Idiopathic T+CD4 lymphocytopenia: an asymptomatic form followed-up for two years (letter)
 Dine, G., S. Brahimi, B. Culioli, and Y. Rehn
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Presse Med. 23(9):447. 19941994
Pure red cell aplasia and idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia [letter]
 Lin, J. C., and H. M. Tripathi.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Clin Infect Dis. 18(4):651-2. 1994.1994
Absence of evidence of retroviral infection in idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia syndrome [letter]
 Heredia, A., J. Muller, V. Soriano, S. F. Lee, A. Castro, J. Pedreira, K. L. Poffemberger, J. Epstein, and I. K. Hewlett.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Aids. 8(2):267-8. 1994.1994
Immunodeficiency without HIV. Consider HIV negative immunodeficiency in cryptococcosis [letter; comment]
 Dev, D., G. S. Basran, D. Slater, P. Taylor, and M. Wood
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Bmj. 308(6941):1436. 1994. .1994
Idiopathic CD(4+)-positive T-lymphocytopenia
 Deng, G. H., and A. X. Wang.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Chung Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih. 33(3):208-10.19941994
The syndrome of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
 Famularo, G., R. Giacomelli, C. De Simone, and G. Tonietti.
  "The syndrome of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia has recently been recognized and referred to as the persistent depletion of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes below 300 cells per cubic millimeter or less than 20% of total lymphocytes in the absence of either HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. The available literature indicates that neither human retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, HTLV- II) nor other transmissible agents play any clear-cut role in the pathogenesis."
  Ann Ital Med Int. 9(1):22-6. 1994.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia with verrucae, basal cell carcinomas, and chronic tinea corporis infection.
 Ohashi, D. K., J. S. Crane, T. J. Spira, and M. L. Courrege.
  "Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia should be considered in HIV-negative patients with skin lesions commonly associated with HIV infection. Patients with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are presumably rare, often have dermatologic lesions, always have low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, and lack all evidence of HIV-1 infection. We describe a young man with verrucae, basal cell carcinomas, chronic tinea corporis, and laboratory evidence supporting a diagnosis of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia"
  J Am Acad Dermatol. 31(5 Pt 2):889-91. 1994.1994
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in an HIV- negative male.
 Thomas, D., D. Leslie, P. Stanley, and B. Clarke
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Aust N Z J Med. 24(4):403. 1994.1994
Immunodeficiency without HIV. Clinical presentation vary
 Monteil, M. A., D. C. Henderson, and S. Obaro.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Bmj. 308(6941):1436., 1994.1994
Clinical heterogeneity of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia [letter]
 Stasi, R., G. Delpoeta, A. Venditti, U. Coppetelli, M. Masi, and G. Papa
  No abstract / Pubmed
  J Intern Med. 235(1):92-3. 19941994
Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection: national retrospective survey
 McNulty, A., J. M. Kaldor, A. M. McDonald, K. Baumgart, and D. A. Cooper.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Bmj. 308(6932):825-6. 1994.1994
No evidence of blood-borne transmission of idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia [letter]
 Wortley, P. M., and S. D. Holmberg.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Transfusion. 34(6):556. 19941994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in blood donors: cohort study [letter]
 Girotto, M., D. A. Verani, and P. P. Pagliaro.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Transfusion. 34(10):935-6. 19941994
HIV seronegative human immunodeficiency syndrome (letter; comment)
 Grosshans, E.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Presse Med. 23(39):1833. 1994.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia: case report [letter]
 Seddon, M., and R. B. Ellis-Pegler.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  N Z Med J. 108(997):134. 19951995
A new case of idiopathic T CD4+ lymphocytopenia and opportunistic infection without HIV infection
 Sanchez Roman, J., M. J. Castillo Palma, R. Torronteras Santiago, and M. T. Pastor Ramos.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Med Clin (Barc). 104(5):198-9. 1995.1995
Bacterial esophagitis associated with CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. Possible role of corticosteroid treatment.
 Richert, S. M., and J. L. Orchard.
  "Although infectious esophagitis is usually due to infection with Candida, herpes virus, or cytomegalovirus, bacterial esophagitis is occasionally observed. Recently, patients have been reported with CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. Bacterial esophagitis per se has not been reported in these patients. We report the case of an 80- year-old patient admitted with a COPD exacerbation after being on chronic steroids. The patient developed esophageal symptoms and was found to have bacterial esophagitis by biopsy. Her CD4+ counts were found to be low, but she denied HIV risk factors and HIV testing was negative. Her CD4+ counts rose into the normal range as her steroids were tapered, and her esophagitis improved on antibiotics. This case is reported to alert physicians to the possible association of bacterial esophagitis with CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection and to discuss the possible etiological role of corticosteroid treatment."
  Dig Dis Sci. 40(1):183-5. 1995.1995
Reversible CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion in a patient who had disseminated histoplasmosis and who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus
 Rhew, D. C., M. B. Goetz, and M. H. Louie.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Clin Infect Dis. 21(3):702-3. 1995.1995
Mycetoma due to Exophiala jeanselmei and Mycobacterium chelonae in a 73- year-old man with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
 Neumeister, B., T. M. Zollner, D. Krieger, W. Sterry, and R. Marre.
  "Exophiala jeanselmei and Mycobacterium chelonae were isolated from cutaneous nodules in a 73-year-old man with mycetoma of the right lower leg. Further evaluation revealed CD4+ lymphocytopenia without evidence of HIV infection. Antibodies to HIV 1/2, p24 antigen and HIV 1/2 (PCR) and reverse transcriptase activity were not detectable. The patient was not a member of any HIV risk group. He had not previously undergone therapy or suffered from immunodeficiency. This case clearly demonstrates that infections with opportunistic moulds and/or atypical mycobacteria should be taken into consideration not only in patients with classical immundeficiency diseases but also in apparently healthy patients because infection with these agents can be the first sign of underlying immunodeficiency."
  Mycoses. 38(7-8):271-6. 1995.1995
Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis in idiopathic CD4- lymphocytopenia
 Neukirch, B., and G. J. Kremer.
  "Persistent CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia was demonstrated as the cause of the entirely extrapulmonary tuberculosis in this HIV-negative patient. This is an only recently described and so far unexplained syndrome."
  Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 120(1-2):23-8. 19951995
CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in children: lack of evidence for a new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome agent.
 Lobato, M. N., T. J. Spira, and M. F. Rogers.
  "We investigated children with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia to determine the magnitude and public health impact of this condition and to investigate possible causes. Children or = 24 months, 300 cells/microliters) or 20% on 2 separate measurements were considered to have CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. We solicited information from clinicians and public health departments on these children and their families and collected blood for immunologic and retroviral testing. We identified 18 children (10 boys; 14 African- Americans) with a median age of 10 months at their first low CD4+ T lymphocyte measurement. Three children had had opportunistic infections and two still had low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts 5 and 7 years later. Of the 11 children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers 7 were asymptomatic. Specimens from all children were negative for HIV and human T lymphotropic virus antibodies and negative for HIV by culture or polymerase chain reaction. Among 12 families interviewed no other HIV-seronegative family or household member had illnesses suggestive of immunosuppression. We conclude that negative retroviral tests and lack of illness among their family members do not support the hypothesis that a retrovirus causes CD4+ T lymphocytopenia among these children."
  Pediatr Infect Dis J. 14(6):527-35. 1995.1995
CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection: increased prevalence among patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.
 Kirtava, Z., J. Blomberg, A. Bredberg, G. Henriksson, L. Jacobsson, and R. Manthorpe.
  "Six patients with 1 degree SS (Primary Sjogren's syndrome) fulfilled the criteria for ICL. While the clinical condition of 5 of those six patients remained stable, one patient developed malignant lymphoma three years after her disease was classified as a case of ICL. The prevalence of ICL among our 115 patients with 1 degree SS was 5.2%, which is significantly higher than the rates reported for any other patient or population group. We have estimated the relative risk of ICL in 1 degree SS patients to vary from 3.4 to 6,000 (P values of 0.0001-0.025)... "
  Clin Exp Rheumatol. 13(5):609-16. 1995.1995
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia: a case report
 Frassanito, M. A., G. Iodice, R. Rizzi, and F. Dammacco.
  "We present the case of a 47-year-old patient who was seen for recurrent opportunistic infections. Immunophenotypic analyses disclosed severe reduction of CD4+ T cells. Repeated Elisa, Western blot and polymerase chain reaction tests for HIV were negative. The low CD4+ T lymphocyte count unaccompanied by increased CD8+ T lymphocytes and hypergammaglobulinemia, along with negativity for HIV infection, suggested the diagnosis of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL). The patient's clinical manifestations and laboratory results conformed with the case definition of ICL established in 1992 by the Centers for Disease Control of Atlanta, i.e., CD4+ T cells 300/mm3 on two occasions and no evidence of HIV infection. In vitro analyses evidenced depressed lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens such as concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, while the expression of Fas antigen on peripheral lymphocytes and the percentage of apoptotic cells after propidium iodide staining were increased. Since in vitro concanavalin A stimulation inhibits T cell proliferation and induces apoptosis, these results suggest that the patient's lymphocytes are susceptible, in vivo, to an apoptotic signal."
  Ann Ital Med Int. 10(3):188-92. 1995.1995
Disseminated histoplasmosis and idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. An autochthonous Italian case
 Confalonieri, M., S. Aiolfi, L. Gandola, A. Scartabellati, A. Colavecchio, G. Cannatelli, and A. Mazzoni.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Presse Med. 24(9):459. 1995.1995
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia syndrome disclosed by meningeal cryptococcosis. A new case (letter; comment)
 Dupon, M., M. Bonnefoy, P. A. Bohu, M. Pinsard, B. Dumon, and H. Fleury.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Presse Med. 24(37):1752. 19951995
CD4+ lymphocytopenia and sarcoidosis
 Caminal Montero, L., D. Ramos Barbon, J. Ferro Mosquera, and J. B. Diaz Lopez
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Med Clin (Barc). 105(4):158. 1995.1995
Idiopathic T CD4+ lymphocytopenia and opportunistic infection without human immunodeficiency virus infection
 Sanchez Roman, J., M. J. Castillo Palmo, C. Rey Romero, and M. D. Mendoza Muro.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Rev Clin Esp. 195(2):127-8. 1995.1995
CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in the elderly [letter]
 Calderon, E., B. Sanchez, F. J. Medrano, P. Stiefel, and M. Leal.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 14(1):75-7. 19951995
CD-4 lymphopenia induced by streptokinase [letter; comment]
 Blum, A., and B. Shohat.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Circulation. 91(6):1899. 19951995
Idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia and subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
 Ferrer, X., C. Vital, M. Larriviere, S. Richard, and J. Julien.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Neurology. 45(1):196-7.1995.1995
AIDS research priorities
 Urnovitz, H.B. and R. W. Stevens.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Science. 267(5202):1249-50. 19951995
CD4 lymphopenia in very elderly people [letter]
 Belmin, J., M. N. Ortega, A. Bruhat, A. Mercadier, and P. Valensi.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Lancet. 347(8997):328-9. 1996.1996
M. Kansasii pulmonary disease in idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia
 Anzalone, G., M. Cei, A. Vizzaccaro, B. Tramma, and A. Bisetti.
  Cases of patients with markedly depressed CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, with or without opportunistic infections, in the absence of any evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been described in recent years. In 1992, the definition of "idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia" was formulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Atlanta (USA). The present case illustrates the occurrence of an unexplained Mycobacterium kansasii pneumonia in a white HIV-negative subject with a persistent depletion of CD4+ T- lymphocytes and suppression of cell-mediated immunity. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia with pulmonary mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium kansasii, and the sixth case of this kind of immunodeficiency described in Italy.
  Eur Respir J. 9(8):1754-6. 19961996
Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia presenting as mycetoma in a patient with a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene
 Zollner, T. M., S. Stracke, B. Neumeister, B. Manfras, W. Boehncke, B. O. Boehm, R. Marre, and W. Sterry.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Arch Dermatol. 132(10):1247-9. 19961996
Case of idiopathic CD4+T-lymphocytopenia complicated by Mycobacterium avium infection
 Yonetsu, M., K. Sato, T. Michimata, T. Sekiguchi, M. Mori, K. Hoshino, and H. Murakami.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 85(8):1293-4. 1996.1996
Photoaccentuated erythroderma associated with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia: successful treatment with 5-methoxypsoralen and UVA, interferon alfa- 2b, and extracorporeal photopheresis
 Wolf, P., R. Mullegger, L. Cerroni, R. Aigner, G. Fueger, G. Hofler, J. Derbaschnig, and H. Kerl.
  "We describe a 53-year-old HIV-negative white man who had chronic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia and photoaccentuated erythroderma with lymphoma-like histologic changes."
  J Am Acad Dermatol. 35(2 Pt 2):291-4. 19961996
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia
 Rodot, S., J. P. Lacour, L. Van Elslande, and J. P. Ortonne.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Ann Dermatol Venereol. 123(12):852-6. 1996.1996
Suspected idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in a young patient with vulvar carcinoma stage IV.
 Rijnders, R. J., I. E. van den Ende, and F. J. Huikeshoven.
  "A case of a woman having a large invasive vulvar carcinoma is reported. Because of the early age of onset and recurrent pneumonia, immunodeficiency was suspected. There appeared to be a repetitive low CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, without evidence of HIV infection or other diseases or therapies known to be clearly associated with T-cell depletion. This is suspected for the rare disorder known as idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia which is often associated with opportunistic infections."
  Gynecol Oncol. 61(3):423-6. 1996.1996
Oral manifestations in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
 Reichart, P. A., H. D. Pohle, and H. R. Gelderblom.
  "A 56-year-old patient with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is described. In addition to a complex medical history and clinical course, he presented with oral manifestations including episodic erythematous candidiasis, persistent angular cheilitis, lingua exfoliativa areata, and teleangiectasia of facial skin and buccal mucosa. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed vascular structures similar to findings in clinically uninvolved oral mucosa of patients with HIV infection."
  Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 25(4):290-2. 1996.1996
A patient with idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia
 Pohl, W.
  Idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (idiopathic BOOP) and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are syndromes of unknown origins which have been characterized in recent years. An important feature of both syndromes is the good prognosis. The clinical and histological features of idiopathic BOOP are unspecific but characteristic, whereas the clinical features of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are not homogeneous. We present a report on the first patient in whom both syndromes were found simultaneously.
  Wien Klin Wochenschr. 108(15):473-7. 19961996
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation can restore CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and immune function in idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia.
 Petersen, E. J., M. Rozenberg-Arska, A. W. Dekker, H. C. Clevers, and L. F. Verdonck.
  CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in the absence of HIV infection is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown cause. Here we report a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia, presenting with an opportunistic Rhodococcus equi infection.
  Bone Marrow Transplant. 18(4):813-5. 1996.1996
Metastatic epidermoid carcinoma in idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia syndrome
 Michel, J. L., J. L. Perrot, D. Mitanne, S. Boucheron, L. Fond, and F. Cambazard.
  A 58-year-old man was seen in January 1994 for squamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder which had grown to 7 x 7 cm in the last 5 months. ... The patient had CD4 lymphocytopenia with a count 100/mm3 in January 1994 of unknown origin (viral infection was eliminated). Our patient had idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. In 40 p. 100 of the cases CD4 lymphocytopenia is caused by AIDS and in 53 p. 100 by other diseases, especially skin diseases including Kaposi syndrome, mycosis fungoides, squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma...
  Ann Dermatol Venereol. 123(8):478-82. 1996.1996
CD4 lymphopenia in elderly patients
 McBride, M.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Lancet. 347(9005):911; discussion 912. 1996.1996
Apoptotic depletion of CD4+ T cells in idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
 Laurence, J., D. Mitra, M. Steiner, D. H. Lynch, F. P. Siegal, and L. Staiano-Coico.
  "Progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, accompanied by opportunistic infections characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ahs been reported in the absence of any known etiology. The pathogenesis of this syndrome, a subset of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL), is uncertain. We report that CD4+ T cells from seven of eight ICL patients underwent accelerated programmed cell death, a process facilitated by T cell receptor cross-linking. "
  J Clin Invest. 97(3):672-80. 1996.1996
Lymphocyte subset diversity in idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
 Tassinari, P., L. Deibis, N. Bianco, and G. Echeverria de Perez.
  "The clinical and public health importance of CD4+ T lymphocytopenia without human immunodeficiency virus infection is still unclear. We describe herein two new human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with low numbers of peripheral CD4+ T cells and opportunistic infections (cerebral toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis plus extrapulmonary histoplasmosis). The low numbers of CD4+ CD29+ memory cells, the high percentage of gamma delta T-cell receptor cells, and the recovery of CD4+ cells after treatment were remarkable."
  Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 3(5):611-3. 1996.1996
Antibodies against retroviral proteins and nuclear antigens in a subset of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia patients.
 Garry, R. F., C. D. Fermin, P. F. Kohler, M. L. Markert, and H. Luo.
  "Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by severe depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes, but in which human immunodeficiency virus cannot be detected..."
  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 12(10):931-40. 1996.1996
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in an asymptomatic HIV-seronegative woman after exposure to HIV
 Fernandez-Cruz, E., J. M. Zabay, and M. A. Munoz-Fernandez
  No abstract / Pubmed
  N Engl J Med. 334(18):1202-3 1996.1996
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia and systemic vasculitis.
 Bordin, G., M. Ballare, S. Paglino, P. Ravanini, D. Dulio, M. C. Malosso, R. Boldorini, and A. Monteverde
  "The syndrome defined as "idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia' (ICL) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology, often associated with severe depression of immune defences and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. A case is reported wherein a severe immunodeficiency syndrome with persistent idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia developed in a woman suffering from systemic microscopic polyarteritis; no signs of HIV 1/2 or HTLV I/II infection were evident. The patient died of widespread opportunistic infections. The association of ICL with vasculitis has never been reported until now. A link between the two diseases cannot be ruled out."
  J Intern Med. 240(1):37-41. 1996.1996
Invasive cryptococcosis in a family with epidermodysplasia verruciformis and idiopathic CD4 cell depletion.
 Yinnon, A. M., B. Rudensky, E. Sagi, G. Breuer, C. Brautbar, I. Polacheck, and J. Halevy
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Clin Infect Dis. 25(5):1252-3. 1997.1997
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia
 Torikai, K.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Intern Med. 36(11):759. 1997.1997
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia and recurrent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.
 Park, K., B. J. Monk, S. Wilczynski, J. I. Ito, Jr., and S. A. Vasilev.
  "CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia immunodeficiency without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported recently. The association between immunodeficiency and anogenital neoplasia secondary to human papillomavirus infections is well documented. A woman with recurrent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) had idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. Human papillomavirus-related VIN may be associated with idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia."
  Obstet Gynecol, 1994, 84(4 Pt 2):712-4.1994
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia terminating in Burkitt's lymphoma
 Shimano, S., N. Murata, and J. Tsuchiya
  A 33-year-old male was admitted because of severe neutropenia (55/microliter) in 1985. A diagnosis of autoimmune neutropenia was not made. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 128/microliter and CD4/CD8, 0.1, though the titers of immunoglobulins were in normal range. Nine times examinations of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count resulted in 5 times lower counts than 300/microliter between 1985 and 1993. His HIV (type 1 and type 2) studies were negative. He suffered from EB virus infection in 1987. ...
  Rinsho Ketsueki. 38(7):599-603. 1997.1997
Extensive ulcerative colitis and extraintestinal manifestations in a patient with HIV infection and significant CD4 T-cell lymphopenia.
 Louis, E., M. P. Moutschen, P. De Marneffe, R. Malherbe, T. Closon, M. T'Jean, J. Demonty, and J. Belaiche.
  We report a heterosexual patient with HIV infection and a CD4 T-cell count of 0.45 x 10(9)/L who developed mild ulcerative proctitis, sacroileitis and oligoarthiritis. While he was treated with 5- aminosalicylic enemas, the patient rapidly developed severe pancolitis. An emergency colectomy without procetectomy was performed. A few months later, he suffered recurrence of ulcerative proctitis, aggravation of arthritic pain and developed anterior uveitis. All symptoms disappeared after proctectomy. There was no evidence for opportunistic infection or Kaposi's sarcoma. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were positive and the HLA-B27 antigen was present. CD4 counts were lower during the phases of active disease than during remission. This case demonstrates that severe ulcerative colitis can occur in the presence of moderate T- cell defects...
  Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 21(11):884-7. 1997.1997
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia with Bowen's disease
 Hayashi, T., Y. Hinoda, T. Takahashi, M. Adachi, S. Miura, T. Izumi, H. Kojima, S. Yano, and K. Imai.
  A 39-year-old man with Bowen's disease was troubled with multiple molluscum contagiosum over the trunk and lower extremities. Subsequently oral candidiasis was complicated. Laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio. His CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was only 187 cells/microl one time and 222 cells/microl another time. No evidence for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found. He had no family history of immunodeficiencies.
  Intern Med. 36(11):822-4. 1997.1997
Active psoriasis and profound CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
 Hardman, C. M., B. S. Baker, J. Lortan, J. Breuer, T. Surentheran, A. Powles, and L. Fry
  We report the case of a patient with a long-standing history of widespread chronic plaque psoriasis, who was recently found to have a profound CD4+ lymphocytopenia. He is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative. His psoriasis remains active and widespread, and he has had 60 cutaneous malignancies, including many squamous cell carcinomas, excised over the last 10 years. In the past he has had numerous cutaneous viral warts. Despite a low peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell count, similar numbers of activated T cells, identified by double labelling for CD4 and HLA-DR antigens, were found in the epidermis of our patient as other individuals with psoriasis. Thus, there appear to be sufficient activated CD4+ T cells in our patient's psoriatic plaques to maintain the psoriatic process.
  Br J Dermatol. 136(6):930-2. 1997.1997
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocyte deficiency: the clinical evolution of a case
 Galie, M., M. Cassone, C. Ausiello, and P. Serra
  The case of a patient with Salmonella arizonae sepsis, esophageal candidiasis, and a low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is presented. Follow-up continued for over 2 years after the patient was discharged from the hospital, and his clinical course and clinical-immunological examinations are described. After a period of several years during which the patient had recurrent acute infectious episodes, he improved markedly after cholecystectomy and toilette of the gingival inlets for severe parodontopathy. His CD4+ T cell count increased although it remained below normal values. This case points to possible hypothesis that chronic infective foci may further compromise the immune system when a congenital functional or numerical CD4+ T cell deficit is present.
  Ann Ital Med Int. 12(4):233-7. 1997.1997
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia: a clinico-immunological syndrome of uncertain significance
 Dammacco, F.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Ann Ital Med Int. 12(4):197-8. 19971997
CD4 lymphocytopenia, Gougerot-Sjogren and systemic lupus erythematosus
 Coutant, G., J. P. Algayres, H. Bili, and J. P. Daly.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Ann Med Interne. 148(7):503-4. 1997.1997
Behcet's-like syndrome associated with idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia, opportunistic infections, and a large population of TCR alpha beta+ CD4- CD8- T cells.
 Venzor, J., Q. Hua, R. B. Bressler, C. H. Miranda, and D. P. Huston.
  Herein we report a patient with Behcet's like syndrome, idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia, opportunistic infections, and a large polyclonal population of TCR alpha beta + CD4- CD8- T cells. Microfluorimetric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed CD4+ T-cell counts of 10 +/- 5/mm3. The CD3+ T cells were 99% TCR alpha beta +, of which 74 +/- 5% were CD4- CD8-. No clonal populations were detected by southern analysis for T-cell receptor V beta gene rearrangements. No evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was present, although nocardia, candida, pneumocystis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes infections were documented. The concomitant presence of opportunistic infections and a large population of TCR alpha beta + CD4- CD8- T cells suggests a pathogenic association and an intense immune response to microbial lipid or lipoglycan antigens presented in the context of CD1 molecules. This case demonstrates the potential for idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia to occur in Behcet's-like syndrome with lethal consequences.
  Am J Med Sci. 313(4):236-8. 19971997
Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia presenting as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report.
 Chikezie, P. U., and A. L. Greenberg.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Clin Infect Dis. 24(3):526-7. 1997.1997
Common variable immunodeficiency with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia and overproduction of soluble IL-2 receptor associated with Turner's syndrome and dorsal kyphoscoliosis.
 Al-Attas, R. A., A. H. Rahi, and F. E. Ahmed el.
  An unusual combination of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Turner's syndrome in a Saudi woman aged 20 years is presented. In addition to panhypogammaglobulinaemia, the patient had CD4+ T lymphocytopenia
  J Clin Pathol. 50(10):876-9. 1997.1997
Meningoencephalomyelitis caused by herpes simplex virus-1 in a patient with idiopathic T CD4+ lymphocytopenia.
 Tumbarello, M., E. Tacconelli, C. Colosimo, R. Cauda, and L. Ortona.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Neurology. 50(2):569-70. 1998.1998
Acute respiratory failure due to miliary tuberculosis in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopaenia.
 Suzuki, Y., S. Suzuki, M. Numata, Y. Matsumoto, J. Suzuki, H. Ikeda, and T. Okubo
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Respir Med. 92(7):977-9. 1998.1998
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in a child with disseminated cryptococcosis.
 Menon, B. S., I. L. Shuaib, M. Zamari, J. A. Haq, S. Aiyar, and L. M. Noh.
  We describe a Malay girl with disseminated cryptococcosis affecting the lungs, liver, lymph nodes and bones. The diagnosis was made by culture of the bone marrow. Tests of immune function showed that she was HIV- negative but the CD4 percentage was persistently low. Idiopathic CD4+ T- lymphocytopenia was diagnosed. The child died despite two courses of anti-fungal therapy.
  Ann Trop Paediatr. 18(1):45-8. 1998.1998
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease in a young patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
 Ishida, T., T. Hashimoto, M. Arita, I. Ito, and M. Osawa.
  A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) disease associated with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia is reported. A rapidly growing pulmonary nodule was detected on a chest roentgenogram in a young man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed M. avium infection. Hematological studies showed a low CD4+ cell count in the absence of any identifiable immunodeficiency, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. With the combination of chemotherapy and surgery, he had a good clinical outcome. Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia should be considered in patients with unexplained opportunistic infection.
  Intern Med. 37(7):622-4. 1998.1998
Pulmonary cryptococcoma with CD4 lymphocytopenia and meningitis in an HIV-negative patient.
 Ho, C. L., B. C. Chang, G. C. Hsu, and C. P. Wu.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Respir Med. 92(1):120-2. 19981998
Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia
 Hayashi, T., M. Adachi, Y. Hinoda, and K. Imai.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Ryoikibetsu Shokogun Shirizu. (21(Pt 2)):185-7. 1998.1998
Hereditary CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
 Freier, S., E. Kerem, Z. Dranitzki, M. Schlesinger, R. Rabinowitz, C. Brautbar, M. Ashkirat, and Y. Naparstek.
  Two siblings suffering from mental retardation, progressive bronchiectasis, extensive warts, and persistent hepatitis B are described. The propositus also had an unusual physiognomy and non- specific colitis. Both patients had a marked decrease in the population of CD4+ helper T cells.
  Arch Dis Child. 78(4):371-2. 1998.1998
Undefined CD4 lymphocytopenia without clinical complications. A report of two cases.
 Cascio, G., A. M. Massobrio, B. Cascio, and A. Anania.
  A form of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) has been recently described. Its diagnostic criteria have been defined by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta. Associations of ICL with hepatitis C infection have been reported, while some ICL patients have presented abnormalities partly similar to those observed in common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). This paper illustrates the immunological pictures of two subjects with a CD4 deficiency confirmed in a series of peripheral blood lymphocyte subset determinations, but not associated with other cellular or humoral immunity abnormalities and accompanied by poorly significant clinical manifestations (no opportunistic infections). Patient one has been observed for a very long period. Her serological picture has been negative and she is free from hypergammaglobulinemia. HIV infection can thus be ruled out. Patient two has not required any specific treatment so far.
  Panminerva Med. 40(1):69-71. 1998.1998