|Antibody tests||Negative AIDS cases||ICL||Risk group|
|Absence of evidence of retrovirus infection in intravenous drug users with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia [letter]|| ||Heredia, A., B. Joshi, S. H. Weiss, S. F. Lee, J. Muller, K. L. Poffenberger, J. Quirinale, J. S. Epstein, and I. K. Hewlett.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||J Infect Dis. 170(3):748-9. 1994||1994|
|Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection.|| ||Ho, D. D., Y. Cao, T. Zhu, C. Farthing, N. Wang, G. Gu, R. T. Schooley, and E. S. Daar.
| ||"We studied 12 patients with CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia who were referred to us from three U.S. cities... The patients (10 men and 2 women) ranged in age from 30 to 69 years. Eight had risk factors for HIV infection. The clinical manifestations were heterogeneous: five patients had opportunistic infections, five had syndromes of unknown cause, and two had no symptoms. Two patients died from acute complications of their immunodeficiency. The patients' lowest CD4+ lymphocyte counts ranged from 3 to 308 per cubic millimeter (mean, 149). Multiple virologic studies by serologic testing, culture, and PCR were completely negative for HIV in all patients."|
| ||N Engl J Med, 1993, 328(6):380-5.||1993|
|Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection.|| ||Smith DK, Neal JJ, Homsberg SD.
| ||“We interviewed 31 of the 47 patients identified with [HIV-negative AIDS, involving low immune cell counts (lymphocytopenia) and no record of positive HIV tests] and 23 of their contacts...Nineteen persons had AIDS-defining illnesses (18 had opportunistic infections), 25 had conditions that were not AIDS-defining [except for their low CD4 cell counts] and 3 were asymptomatic...Eighteen patients (38 percent) had one or more risk factors for HIV infection: seven had hemophilia, six had engaged in homosexual sex, six had received blood transfusions, and two had had heterosexual sex partners who were at risk for HIV infection. The other 29 patients (62 percent) had no identified risk factors for HIV infection. We tested blood from 28 patients: 8 (29 percent) were found to have CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of less than 300 cells per cubic millimeter, and 6 had CD8+ T-lymphocytopenia ( 250 cells per cubic millimeter)...The investigation of contacts revealed no evidence of a new transmissible agent that causes lymphocytopenia.”|
| ||NEJM. 1993;328(6):373-9.||1993|
|CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia, Kaposi's sarcoma, HHV-8 infection, severe seborrheic dermatitis, and onychomycosis in a homosexual man without HIV infection.|| ||Garcia-Silva J, Almagro M, Pena C, Lopez Calvo S, Castro A, Soriano V, Fonseca E.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Int J Dermatol 1999 Mar;38(3):231-3||1999|
|Pneumocystis carinii in a patient with pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.|| ||Sinicco A, Maiello A, Raiteri R, Sciandra M, Dassio G, Zamprogna C, Mecozzi B.
| ||"A case of pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia is reported. Pneumocystis carinii was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a young homosexual man who was asymptomatic without any evidence of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency but with a low CD4+ cell count. A clinical and histological diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis was made. During follow up the patient had oral candidiasis and a CD4+ cell count persistently below 300/microliters. This case is highly suggestive of concurrent pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia."|
| ||Thorax 1996 Apr;51(4):446-7: discussion 448-9||1996|
|CD4+ lymphocytopenia in HIV-seronegative homosexual men [letter].|| ||Tindall, B., J. Elford, T. Sharkey, A. Carr, J. Kaldor, and D. A. Cooper.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Aids. 7(9):1272-3.1993.||1993|
|Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in 2 patients without indications for HIV infection|| ||Pohl, W., C. Armbruster, K. Bernhardt, M. Drlicek, and N. Vetter.
| ||"We report on two patients with idiopathic CD4+ T cell depletion. A 26 year-old woman presented to us with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Despite combined antibiotic therapy parenterally the opacities increased in the chest X-ray. An open lung biopsy was performed and led to the histological diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Respiratory function was improved impressively by high dose parenteral cortisone administration. This patient showed a general lymphocytopenia with severe CD4+ T cell depletion (60(37%)/mm3 blood). The CT4+ T cell concentration increased during a follow up period of 14 months, but did not reach normal values. The second patient was a 33 year-old homosexual. He was admitted with a mucocutaneous fungal infection which was successfully treated by antifungal drugs. This patient demonstrated a transient CD4+ T cell depletion (350(32%)/mm3 blood). In both patients HIV type 1 and 2 infections were excluded by antibody- and p 24-antigen testing, polymerase chain reaction and virus culture..."|
| ||Wien Klin Wochenschr. 107(3):95-100. 1995.||1995|
|Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in HIV seronegative men with hemophilia and sex partners of HIV seropositive men. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study.|| ||O'Brien, T. R., L. Diamondstone, M. W. Fried, L. M. Aledort, S. Eichinger, M. E. Eyster, M. W. Hilgartner, G. White, A. M. Di Bisceglie, and J. J. Goedert.
| ||"Persons with hemophilia or other HIV-1 risk factors may be more likely to have idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia (ICL). We determined the frequency of ICL in prospectively followed cohorts of HIV-1 seronegative hemophilic men and seronegative female sex partners of HIV- 1 infected hemophilic men, and examined factors potentially associated with ICL. Seven of 304 (2.3%) seronegative hemophilic men and one of 160 (0.6%) female partners met the ICL definition, but the condition resolved for two of the men and for the sole female partner. All five men with persistent ICL had lymphocytopenia ( 1,200 total lymphocytes/microliters) and 300 total CD4+ lymphocytes/microliters; only one had a low CD4+ percentage. On the most recent measurement, 14.5% of the 304 seronegative hemophilic men had lymphocytopenia. Compared with matched hemophilic controls, men with persistent ICL more often had a history of liver disease (3/5 cases, 0/21 controls, P = 0.007) or splenomegaly (3/5 cases, 4/21 controls; P = 0.04), but not severe hemophilia, greater clotting factor concentrate exposure, high alanine aminotransferase levels, hepatitis B virus antigenemia, or detectable hepatitis C virus RNA in plasma..."|
| ||Am J Hematol. 49(3):201-6. 1995.||1995|