|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||Babies|
|manufacturer's notice|| ||Glaxo SmithKline
| ||"Use in Infancy: A positive test for HIV-antibody in children under 15 months of age may represent passively acquired maternal antibodies, rather than an active antibody response to infection in the infant. Thus, the presence of HIV antibody in a child less than 15 months of age must be interpreted with caution, especially in the asymptomatic infant. Confirmatory tests such as serum p24 antigen or viral culture should be pursued in such children."|
|Interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV-1: effect on viral detection rate in early infant samples.|| ||Dunn DT et al.
| ||“Although DNA and RNA PCR and cell culture can detect very low concentrations of HIV-1, these assays yield a positive result in only 20-40% of vertically- infected infants who are tested shortly after birth”|
| ||AIDS. 2000 Jul 7;14(10):1421-8.||2000|
|Perinatal Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 to Infants of Seropositive Women in Zaire.|| ||Ryder RW et al.
| ||“The detection of conventional IgG antibodies to HIV-1 during the first year of life may result from the passive transfer of maternal antibodies...Our inability to detect these antibodies in 10 of the 11 infants who were without evidence of AIDS in the first year of life but who had positive cord-blood cultures highlights the difficulty of diagnosing perinatal HIV-1 infection. The absence of detectable antibodies in children with obvious clinical disease has also been noted in previous studies”|
| ||NEJM. 1989 Jun 22;320(25):1637-42.||1989|
|Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers.|| ||Rogers, M. F., Ou, C.-Y., Rayfield, M., Thomas, P. A., Schoenbaum, E. E., Abrams, E., Krasinski, K., Selwyn, P. A., Moore, J., Kaul, A., Grimm, K. T., Bamji, M., Schochetman, G.,
| ||“30 of the infants born to seropositive mothers reverted from seropositive to seronegative. The median age of these 30 infants at seroreversion...was 9 months (range 1 to 16)”|
| ||NEJM. 1989 Jun 22;320(25):1649-54.||1989|
|Perinatal transmission of HIV-1 in Zambia.|| ||Hira SK et al.
| ||“Of 61 children who became seronegative at 8 months, antibodies to HIV-1 reappeared in nine at 12 months. By comparison none of of the nine children who became seronegative at 12 months showed a reappearance of antibodies. On the other hand, 18% of children who were seropositive up to 12 months became negative at 18 months and were free of symptoms after 24 months...of 13 neonates who were seronegative at birth, four converted to become seropositive at different ages...HIV-1 serology is unreliable among children under 18 months of life”|
| ||BMJ. 1989;299:1250-.||1989|