|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||Blood transfusion|
|Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies.|| ||Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F.
| ||"One notable association with false positive ELISA reactivity in some commercial preparations has been patients with anti-HLA-DR4 antibodies, most often … multiply transfused patients|
| ||Mayo Clin Proc. 1988;63:373-9.||1988|
|HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report|| ||US Centers for Disease Control & Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
| ||“41 adults/adolescents and 2 children developed AIDS after receiving blood screened negative for HIV antibody. 13 additional adults developed AIDS after receiving tissue, organs, or artificial insemination from HIV-infected donors. Four of the 13 received tissue, organs, or artificial insemination from a donor who was negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation. ”|
| ||U.S. HIV and AIDS cases reported through December 2001. CDC. 2002;13(2).||2002|
|Transmission of AIDS from blood screened negative for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus.|| ||Conley LJ, Holmberg SD.
| ||“158 patients with AIDS…had purportedly acquired their infections from blood that was negative on screening for HIV [in the US after March, 1985]…Of the 97 patients with completed follow-up…9 had received blood from donors later found to be negative for HIV antibody [but had no other risk factor for HIV infection]”|
| ||N Engl J Med. 1992 May 28;326(22):1499-500.||1992|
|Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by blood transfusion screened as negative for HIV antibody.|| ||Ward JW et al.
| ||“The remaining 5 recipients reported no risk factors for HIV infection other than transfusion, but the donors to 4 of these were retested and found to be negative for HIV antibody 10 months or more after donation.”|
| ||N Engl J Med. 1988 Feb 25;318(8):473-7.||1988|
|Competitive ELISA for the detection of HTLV-III antibodies.|| ||Saxinger WC, Gallo RC.
| ||“Three chimpanzees were inoculated with AIDS plasma [i.e. plasma from someone with AIDS, not purified virus] and one was inoculated only with normal human plasma. Blood was sampled biweekly from each animal and serum was tested in the standard indirect ELISA for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies...all four of the animals were positive for passively transferred HTLV-III”|
| ||US Patent Office. 1987 Apr 28;4,661,445.||1987|
|Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.|| ||Proffitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B.
| ||"Notable causes of false-positive reactions have been anti-HLA-DR antibodies that sometimes occur in … multiply transfused patients.|
| ||Inf Dis Clin North Am. 1993;7:203-19.||1993|