|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||Cocaine|
|Sex-specific determinants of HIV infection among injection drug users in Montreal.|| ||Bruneau J et al.
| ||“Use of cocaine (rather than heroin) was independently associated with HIV prevalence among men [IV drug users in Montreal] ”|
| ||CMAJ. 2001 Mar 20;164(6):767-73.||2001|
|Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco.|| ||Chaisson RE et al.
| ||“[Subjects in this study were in public methadone treatment for heroin or cocaine addiction in 1986 and 1987] A strong association was found between [HIV] seropositivity and current or prior cocaine injection. The odds ratio for current monthly cocaine injection compared with no cocaine use was 2.2 and rose to 2.6 for weekly cocaine injection and to 6.4 for daily cocaine injection. Conversely, the frequency of current heroin injection was only weakly associated with HIV infection, with no increased risk for monthly use and only slightly increased risk for daily heroin injection compared with no current heroin use…cocaine injectors had a higher prevalence of HIV infection whether they used cocaine alone, cocaine and heroin separately, or cocaine and heroin mixed together.”|
| ||JAMA. 1989 Jan 27;261(4):561-5.||1989|
|Cocaine and HIV seropositivity.|| ||Sterk C.
| ||“The interviews confirmed an association between intravenous drug use and HIV seropositivity [16/35 taking drugs only intravenously], surprisingly, however, the results also indicated a significant relation between non-intravenous use of cocaine and crack and seropositivity [84% taking cocaine and crack other than intravenously]”|
| ||Lancet. 1988 May 7;1052-3.||1988|
|Intersecting epidemics: crack cocaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults.|| ||Edlin BR et al.
| ||“[Table 4 shows that regular crack users are 2.3 times more likely to be HIV+ than the entire group studied, the likelihood increases from no more likely with no more than 1 year smoking crack regularly to 2.1 times more likely with 6 or more years regular smoking]”|
| ||N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 24;331(21):1422-7.||1994|
|Intensive injection cocaine use as the primary risk factor in the Vancouver HIV-1 epidemic.|| ||Tyndall MW et al.
| ||"Injecting cocaine use was predictive of HIV infection in a dose-dependent fashion." [Compatible with the theory that cocaine use directly generates the antibodies interpreted as from HIV. Particularly because use of heroin does not show such a strong relationship.]|
| ||AIDS. 2003 Apr 11; 17(6): 887-93.||2003|