|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||HIV + babies from HIV - mothers|
|Risk factors for immunodeficiency virus seropositivity among children 1-24 months old in Kinshasha, Zaire.|| ||Mann JM et al.
| ||A study in Kinshasha in 1985 found 39% (16 of 44) of HIV-positive inpatient and outpatient children 1-24 months old to have HIV-negative mothers; only five of 16 had been transfused|
| ||Lancet 1986; ii: 654-657.||1986|
|Are medical injections a risk factor for HIV infection in Children?|| ||Lepage P et al.
| ||A study in Rwanda in 1984-86 found 20% (15 of 76) of children 1-48 months old with AIDS or AIDS related complex had HIV-negative mothers; only 15 children had been transfused|
| ||Lancet 1986; ii: 1103-1104.||1986|
|Estimating the incubation period of pediatric AIDS in Rwanda.|| ||Commenges D, et al.
| ||In a later report from Rwanda, 7.3% (54 of 704) of mothers of children with AIDS were HIV-negative; transfusions were identified as a risk factor for 22 of the 54 children|
| ||AIDS 1992; 6: 1515-15-20.||1992|
|Kaposi’s sarcoma in childhood: an analysis of 100 cases from Uganda and relationship of HIV infection.|| ||Zeigler JL, Kotongole-Mbidde E.
| ||Of 26 children less than 15 years old admitted to Uganda Cancer institute with Kaposi’s sarcoma during 1989-94 for which the mother was tested for HIV, 19% (5 of 26) had HIV-negative mothers|
| ||Int J Cancer 1996; 65: 200-203.||1996|
|Kids with ‘inexplicable’ HIV.|| ||Brummer W.
| ||“Dr Mark Cotton, a paediatrician at Tygerberg Hospital [in South Africa] and senior author of the study, said the children, who were studied between 1997 and 2003, might be the tip of an iceberg. ‘The fact that we often come into contact with children who contracted the virus in inexplicable ways is something that should be studied by epidemiologists urgently,’ he said…in the latest research, the mothers of all 14 children were HIV-negative. The possibility of contaminated blood was excluded in the case of children who had received blood transfusions. As far as researchers could establish, the children were not breastfed by surrogate mothers nor were they sexually abused. What the study did establish was that 12 of the 14 were given intravenous draining lines or medicine in hospitals before diagnosis.”|
| ||News 24. 2004 Mar 3.||2004|
|HIV infection and severe malnutrition: a clinical epidemiological study in Burkina Faso.|| ||Prazuck T, et al.
| ||A study in Burkina Faso in 1989-90 found 23% (11 0f 48) of HIV-positive children to have HIV-negative mothers.|
| ||AIDS 1993; 7: 103-108.||1993|
|Retrospective study of maternal HIVB-1 and HIV-2 infections in child survival in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.|| ||De Cock KM, et al.
| ||In a 1994 report from Cote d’Ivoire, De Cock and colleagues report that 21% (3 of 14) of children with HIV-1 had mothers without HIV-1, and one of two with HIV-2 had a mother without HIV-2"|
| ||BMJ 1994; 308: 441-442.||1994|
|Nelson Mandela/Human Sciences Research Council Study of HIV/AIDS: South African National HIV Prevalence, Behavioural Risks and Mass Media: Household Survey.|| ||Shisana O, Simbayi L, Bezuidenhout F.
| ||"A small subgroup of 20 children (aged 2–11) was matchable to a biological parent with a known HIV test result, and only 5 of these infected children had an HIV-positive parent. This would support the hypothesis that up to three-quarters of HIV-infected 2–11 year olds may have been infected from a source other than their mother. The observation in the same survey that white children had an HIV prevalence of 11% (16/145), while white adults had one of 5.7%, also points to an important role for non-vertical HIV transmission."|
| ||Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council Publishers, 2002 (Available at: http://www.cadre.org.za/pdf/HIV%20Report.pdf. Accessed 14 February 2003).||2003|