|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||Low/high risk|
|Recommendations for Screening Donated Blood and Plasma for Antibody to the Virus Causing Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.|| ||Provisional Public Health Service Inter-Agency
| ||“When the ELISA is used to screen populations in whom the prevalence of HTLV-III infections is low, the proportion of positive results that are falsely positive will be high”|
| ||MMWR. 1985 Jan 11;34(1):1-5.||1985|
|THE YIN AND YANG OF HIV A Great Future Behind It|| ||Turner Valendar & McIntyre Andrew
| ||When the same questions were later put via the Offices of Senator Chris Ellison, Minister for Schools, Vocational Education and Training, ... the widely different criteria (for a positive WB) between Australia and Africa were justified on the basis that in Africa, "comparatively, false reactivity is far less common [than in Australia] so that interpretation criteria to define [true] positivity may be less strict".(Wooldridge HCM, Services MfHaF. Copy of letter sent to Senator Christopher Ellison, 1997). However, no scientist can make such a claim without data... Even without such evidence since, (a) the NRL concedes that cross-reacting antibodies cause misleading reactions in the WB in one quarter of healthy Australians; (b) unlike Australians, Africans, (similar to the AIDS risk groups), are exposed to a multitude of infectious agents producing a myriad of antibodies each capable of cross-reactions; "false reactivity" will be much higher in Africa where the WB criteria should be the most stringent.|
| ||NEXUS Magazine ; 3 issues beginning January 1999||1999|
|Testing for Human Immunodeficiency.|| ||Stine GJ.
| ||“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that the two tests used to identify HIV - the ELISA and the Western blot (WB) - used in combination, have a better than 99% accuracy rate, but only if they are performed repeatedly. (The exact rate is unknown and the CDC states that it has no data on just how many false positives versus false negatives occur!)…The CDC estimates that 0.6% of Americans are HIV-positive…Using the CDC estimate that 0.6% of Americans are HIV-positive, in a population of 10,000, 60 Americans would test positive! This 60 must include all the false positives, 30, leaving only 30 people actually infected. This leads to the following conclusion: using a 99% accuracy, one finds as many false positives as true positives. Even if the results of both AIDS tests, the ELISA and WB, are positive, the chances are only 50-50 that the individual is infected.”|
| ||AIDS Update 1999. 1999;357-371.||1999|
|Human Immunodeficiency Virus in pregnancy.|| ||Minkoff HL.
| ||“A small number (15% to 20%) [!] of [ELISA and WB antibody] tests from low-risk patients will be indeterminate and remain so even if repeated over many months”|
| ||Semin Perinatol. 1998 Aug;22(4):293-308.||1998|