|Antibody tests||Unreliability||False positive||Malaria|
|Elisa HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans.|| ||Biggar, R.J. Gigase, P.L. Melbye, M. Kestens, L. Sarin, P.S. Demedts, P. Delacollette, C. Bodner, A.J. Paluku, L. Stevens, W.J. & Battner, W.A.
| ||Biggar and his colleagues found that in Africa a positive HIV antibody test "correlated strongly with level of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum", the microorganism which causes malaria.|
| ||Lancet II, 1985, 520-523.||1985|
|Antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV in Venezuelan patients with acute malarial infections.|| ||Volsky et al.
| ||Researchers from the USA and Venezuela reported that 3 out of 12 patients (25%) with Plasmodium vivax at no risk of AIDS and 5 of 12 (41%) of patients with Plasmodium falciparum, also at no risk of AIDS, 'were found to be positive for HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot and radioimmunoprecipitation tests, … The frequency of antibodies of HTLV-III/LAV among healthy blood donors in this area was less than 1 percent".|
| ||NEJM 1986;314:647-648||1986|
|AIDS in Africa, In Search of the Truth|| ||Malan Rian
| ||"My education in the complexities of the ELISA test started when I came across an article in a scientific journal published last year. It told a story that began in 1994, when researchers ran HIV tests on 184 high-risk subjects in a South African mining camp. Twenty-one of the subjects came up positive or borderline positive on at least one ELISA. But the results were confusing: A locally manufactured test indicated seven, but different people in almost every case. A French test declared fourteen were infected. : Of the twenty-one subjects who tested positive, sixteen had had recent malaria infections and huge levels of antibody in their veins. The researchers tried an experiment: They formulated a preparation that absorbed the malaria antibodies, treated the blood samples with it, then retested them. Eighty percent of the suspected HIV infections vanished. The researchers themselves admitted that these findings were inconclusive."|
| ||RollingStone magazine, November 22, 2001||2001|