|CD4+ counts||Inconsistent surrogate marker||Standards||Africans|
|The AIDS problem in Africa.|| ||Biggar, R. J.
| ||. "...among healthy Africans resident in a non-AIDS area, the numbers of helper and suppressor lymphocytes were the same in HTLV-III/LAV seropositive and seronegative subjects...".|
| ||Lancet 1986 I, 79-83||1986|
|Reduced naive and increased activated CD4 and CD8 cells in healthy adult Ethiopians compared with their Dutch counterparts.|| ||Messele T, Abdulkadir M, Fontanet AL, Petros B, Hamann D, Koot M, Roos MT, Schellekens PT, Miedema F, Rinke de Wit TF.
| ||"To assess possible differences in immune status, proportions and absolute numbers of subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were compared between HIV- healthy Ethiopians (n = 52) and HIV- Dutch (n = 60). Both proportions and absolute numbers of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to be significantly reduced in HIV Ethiopians compared with HIV- Dutch subjects. Also, both proportions and absolute numbers of the effector CD8+ T cell population as well as the CD4+CD45RA-CD27- and CD8+CD45RA-CD27- T cell populations were increased in Ethiopians. Finally, both proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 were significantly reduced in Ethiopians versus Dutch. ...".|
| ||Clin Exp Immunol 1999 Mar;115(3):443-50||1999|
|Distribution of CD4+ T-lymphocytes levels in patients with clinical symptoms of AIDS in three west African countries.|| ||Adu-Sarkodie Y, Sangare A, d'Almeida OA, Kanmogne GD.
| ||"Selected patients had clinical AIDS, according to the WHO clinical definition of AIDS in Africa. Serum samples were tested for the presence of HIV antibodies with two different enzyme immunoassays (EIA), and whole blood was used to determine the CD4 lymphocyte levels of each patient, using the TRAx CD4 Test Kit. In patients with AIDS, the mean CD4+ cell level was 466/microliter; 34% of patients had less than 200/microliter and 62.1% less than 400/microliter... The optimal CD4+ cell cut-off between the two groups of patients (with and without antibody to HIV) was 400/microliter. The mean CD4 cell levels of AIDS patients was more than twice the 200 CD4+ cells/microliter which, alone or associated with clinical criteria is used to differentiate HIV seropositive patients with and without AIDS. A cut-off of 400 T-lymphocyte equivalents per microlitre (TLE/microliter) will be more appropriate..."|
| ||J Clin Virol 1998 Dec;11(3):173-81||1998|
|Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau.|| ||Lisse IM, Poulsen AG, Aaby P, Knudsen K, Dias F.
| ||"In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we followed a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositive individuals (N = 47) and seronegative controls (N = 82). T-lymphocyte subset determinations were done in 1988, 1990, and 1992. Serial determinations of CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8 ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037)... However, there were no significant differences in immunological and hematological values for the 8 HIV-2 seropositive individuals who died and the 39 who survived in the 8-year follow-up period. In conclusion, progression of immunosuppression in HIV-2 infection seems to be slower than in HIV-1 infection and may not be inevitable in all individuals."|
| ||J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996 Dec 1;13(4):355-62||1996|