Dissident AIDS Database

NIAID Researchers Discover Why Some HIV-Infected People Don't Develop AIDS
  "For reasons largely unknown, a small number of HIV-infected individuals remain symptom-free long after AIDS normally would have appeared... The investigators selected these patients because they represented the healthiest LTNPs - people with normal CD4+ T-cell counts and extremely low levels of HIV in the blood. This "elite" group of nonprogressors in many cases had virus levels below the level of detection even though they had been HIV-positive for 15 years and had not received antiretroviral therapy." (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2709-714, 2000).
  NIH news release, wednesday, March 15, 20002000
Hemophilia and nonprogressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
 Vicenzi E, Bagnarelli P, Santagostino E, Ghezzi S, Alfano M, Sinnone MS, Fabio G, Turchetto L, Moretti G, Lazzarin A, Mantovani A, Mannucci PM, Clementi M, Gringeri A, Poli G DIBIT,
  "Seven of 112 hemophiliacs infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) before 1986 through contaminated plasma products are currently healthy, with CD4 T-cell counts above 500 cells/microL, and have never received antiretroviral therapy (long-term nonprogressors [LTNPs])"
  Blood 1997 Jan 1;89(1):191-2001997
Socio-demographic and life-style factors in a Swiss study of HIV non-progression
 Kopp C, Lang S, von Overbeck J
  "The association between income and disease progression, also found in another cohort, cannot be explained by unequal access to therapies since, in accordance with the inclusion criteria, no one in our cohort had received antiretroviral therapies."
  Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1999 Oct 2;129(39):1397-4041999
Virological and immunological features of long-term human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who have remained asymptomatic compared with those who have progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
 Barker E, Mackewicz CE, Reyes-Teran G, Sato A, Stranford SA, Fujimura SH, Christopherson C, Chang SY, Levy JA
  "However, a small group of infected people, despite being infected by HIV for 10 or more years, remain clinically asymptomatic and have stable CD4(+) cell counts without taking antiretroviral medication."
  Blood 1998 Nov 1;92(9):3105-141998
Reasons given by patients for "non-progression' in HIV infection.
 Troop M, Easterbrook P, Thornton S, Flynn R, Gazzard B, Catalan J
  "Identification of the reasons for long-term survival in HIV infection is an area of current intense research. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions among patients with different rates of disease progression as to the reasons for a good outcome with HIV. In a case-control study of 134 long-term (> or = 8 years) HIV-infected participants, 62 were defined as non-progressors... Non-progressors were asked 'what do you feel are the reasons for your good outcome with HIV-infection?' Mental attitude, and in particular a positive outlook was the reason most frequently given for a good outcome among both non-progressors (NP) 42%, and progressors (P) 40%, followed by lifestyle measures and personal action (NP 31%, P 35%). Medical treatments such as anti-retroviral drugs were rarely suggested (< 3%)."
  AIDS Care 1997 Apr;9(2):133-421997
Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of HIV-type 1 infection.
 Cao, Yunzhen, et al,
  The study is based on 10 HIV+ people in New York City, all of whom had been living with HIV infection for 12-15 years when the study was done: 7 gay men; 2 IV drug users; 1 woman infected heterosexually. Their characteristics were: (1) no AIDS symptoms; (2) normal and stable CD4 cells; (3) no prolonged use of antiviral agents; (4) infection of 12 years or more. Two important points emerge: (1) they did not use antiviral drugs; (2) they stopped all high-risk activity after they tested HIV- positive.
  New England Journal of Medicine. January 26, 1995, 332: 201-208.1995
Disease progression of 15% of HIV-infected men will be long-time survivors.
 Munoz, A. et al.
  Not one of the long-term survivors at risk for AIDS, the MACSA study, had used AZT
  AIDS Weekly, (News Report), May 15 & 29: 5-6; 3-4.1
Five myths about AIDS that have misdirected research and treatment
 Root-Bernstein, Robert.
  The study documents that long-term survivors discussed here all avoided antiviral drugs and had given up or never had taken recreational drugs.
  Genetica (1995) 95: 111-132.1995
Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
 Pantaleo, G. et al.
  Fifteen long-term non-progressors studied: usually living longer than 10 years : no decline in CD4s, had not taken any antiretroviral drugs.
  New England Journal of Medicine, 332:209 (1995)1995
Predictors for non- and slow progression in HIV type-1 infection: low viral RNA copy numbers in serum and maintenance of high HIV-1 p24-specific antibody levels.
 Hogervorst, E. et al.
  “Subjects: homosexual men in Amsterdam. Three groups, all HIV+ for p24 antibodies: either (1) not, or (2) slowly or (3) rapidly progressing to AIDS. (1) long-term asymptomatic: at least 7 years asymptomatic; T cells at 400 or above; (2) slowly progressing, same as #1 but decline of T-cells after 4 years. “None of the LTAs [long-term asymptomatics] or slow progressors received any antiviral drugs during the study [ 7 years].”
  Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171:811 (1995)1995
Strong cytotoxic T-cell and weak neutralizing antibody responses in a subset of persons with stable nonprogressing HIV type-1 infection
 Harrer, Thomas et al.
  Ten HIV+ people; 11-15 years infected; non-progressors; maintained stable T-cell counts above 500. “These long-term nonprogressors are a heterogeneous group with respect to viral load and HIV-1 responses.” “Selected solely on the basis of CD4 counts and duration of infection. All showed the same risk factor (sexual exposure), and all had... virus..., and none had been treated with antiretroviral agents.”
  AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 12: 585 (1996)1996
Long-term HIV-1 infection without immunologic progression.
 Buchbinder, Susan et al.
  588 men; 42 were 10-15 year non-progressors. “Only 38% of the HLP [Healthy long-term positives] had ever used zidovudine [AZT] or other nucleoside analogues, compared with 94% of the progressors.”
  AIDS, 8:1123 (1994)1994
In Vitro activation of HIV RNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes
 Garbuglia, Anna R. et al.
  Eleven HIV+ long-term non-progressors: all stable for at least 7 years; CD4 cells >500; no AIDS symptoms; and no antiretroviral therapy
  AIDS, 10:17 (1996)1996
Long-term survival without clinical AIDS after CD4+ cell counts fall below 200.
 Hoover, Donald R. et al. (Johns Hopkins)
  Of the 446 men in the MACS study with 200 T-cells, 26% (118) were free of AIDS illnesses three years later. “. . . 45% of the group who were AIDS-free > three years after CD4+ cells fell below 200 had not used these [antiretroviral therapy] treatments.
  AIDS, 9:145 (1995)1995
Neutralizing and infection-enhancing antibody responses to HIV type-1 in long-term nonprogressors
 Montefiori, David C. et al
  Subjects: 24 long-term nonprogressors [LTNP] all have HIV infection for at least 7 years; CD4 cells at 600; no symptoms related to HIV-1 infection; and with the exception of 2 patients, none of them had ever received antiretroviral therapy.
  Journal of Infectious Diseases , 173:60 (1996)1996
The incubation period of AIDS.
 Munoz, A. et al.
  “we estimate that between 21 and 40% (95% confidence interval) [of healthy, HIV+ people not using antiretroviral drugs] will be free from clinical AIDS 12 years from seroconversion and between 10 and 17%…20 years from seroconversion.”
  AIDS. 1997;Vol 11 (suppl A):S69-76.1997
Long-term survivors with HIV-1 infection; incubation period and longitudinal patterns of CD4+ lymphocytes.
 Munoz, A. et al.
  A study of 67 HIV+ men with no CD4+ decline for at least 5.5 years. The article reports that none of these 67 men had or were using AZT. Two matched groups were set up as controls: (1) a group described as "moderate decliners" in regard to CD4+, and no use of AZT; and (2) a group of 'fast decliners' who did or could have used AZT."
  Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome & Human Retrovirology. 8(5): 496-505, 1995 Apr 151995
Longterm symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor;
 Learmont J, Tindall B, Evans L, Cunningham A, Cunningham P, Wells J, Penny R, Kaldor J and Cooper D A
  An Australian research team described a group of untreated HIVpositives who were infected by blood transfusions but did not develop AIDS 10 years later.
  Lancet 1992, 340 863–8671992
B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV-infected long term nonprogressors
 Migueles S A, Sabbaghian M S, Shupert W L, Bettinotti M P, Marincola F M, Martino L, Hallahan C W, Selig S M, Schwartz D, Sullivan J and Connors M
  Migueles et al reported that none of 13 long-term survivors had received “antiretroviral therapy”.
  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2000 HLA 97 2709–27142000
The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition
  Ho et al recently attributed longterm survival to some special human proteins, termed “defensins” (Zhang L, Yu W, He T, Yu J, Caffrey R E, Dalmasso E A, Fu S, Pham T, Mei J, Ho J J, Zhang W, Lopez P and Ho D D 2002 Contribution of Human {alpha}-Defensin-1, -2 and -3 to the Anti-HIV-1 Activity of CD8 Antiviral Factor; Science 298 995–2000), but acknowledged personally that all long-term survivors had again abstained from anti-HIV therapies (David Ho, personal communication).
  J. Biosc, Vol. 28 No. 4, June 2003, 383–4122003
The Drug-AIDS Hypothesis
 Duesberg Peter, Rasnick David
  "This point is often understated in these studies, and is not made in the titles or abstracts. In David Baltimore’s editorial on 2 of these studies, avoidance of antivirals was not mentioned at all. Needless to say, none of these studies was funded by a pharmaceutical firm (Baltimore D. Lessons from people with nonprogressive HIV infection (editorial; comment). N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 259-260)"
  Continuum Feb./March 19971997
Surviving AIDS
 Callen Michael
  Callen interviewed nearly fifty people who had lived for many years not just after being pronounced HIV-positive, but after an AIDS diagnosis. He found that only four had ever used AZT; three of those had since died, and one was dying of AZT-induced lymphoma. But the overwhelming majority of long-term survivors had somehow managed to resist the enormous pressure to take AZT
Love has Helped Keep me Alive.
 Gavzer B.
  Independent scientists document that in addition to abstaining from antiviral drugs long-term survivors are those who have given up or never taken recreational drugs
  Parade Magazine 1995; 4-6, April 161995
We have to question the so-called 'facts'.
 Wells J.
  Independent scientists document that in addition to abstaining from antiviral drugs long-term survivors are those who have given up or never taken recreational drugs
  Capital Gay 1993: 14-15, August 20th1993
Abrams Cautious On Use of New AIDS Drugs
 Tanaka Mark
  Dr. Donald I Abrams, Prof. of Medicine at San Francisco General Hospital : “In contrast with many of my colleagues at SFGH in the AIDS program, I am not necessarily a cheerleader for anti-retroviral therapy. I have been one of the people who’s questioned, from the beginning, whether or not we’re really making an impact with HIV drugs and, if we are making an impact, if it’s going in the right direction.” “I have a large population of people who have chosen not to take any antiretrovirals since I’ve been following them -- since the very beginning. . . They’ve watched all of their friends go on the antiviral bandwagon and die, so they’ve chose to remain naive [to therapy]."
  Synapse Univ. of California, San Francisco.1996
Artist’s perception stroked by his longtime HIV status;
 Hendrix A
  The San Francisco Chronicle described a small group of drug-free and AIDS-free long-term survivors of HIV. Among them is a healthy artist who is HIV-positive for 23 years (based on frozen blood samples) and was “chastised by his doctors when he refused to start taking medication”
  San Francisco Chronicle, 2002, March 202002
Positive Approach
 Cheakalos C and Rosza L
  People magazine just described a healthy woman who is HIV-positive for an estimated 15 years, and “needs no medication”. The woman has since founded a support group, termed Center for Positive Connections, for HIVpositive heterosexuals in Miami.
  People, 2002, 4 March, 95–962002
The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition
  In an effort to obtain independent proof that abstaining from anti-HIV drugs and recreational drugs is sufficient to survive HIV-infection or even to recover from AIDS, one of us, CK, in 1985 initiated a study of AIDS patients from Kiel, Germany, who have volunteered to abstain from anti-HIV treatments. Remarkably, only 8% (3 of 36) of the patients not treated with anti-HIV drugs have died since their HIV antibodies were first detected, two of them 16 years and one 10 years after their first diagnosis of antibodies against HIV. Most have recovered from their initial AIDS-indicator symptoms. By contrast, 63% of all German AIDS patients (11,700 out of 18,700) of which most were treated since 1987 with anti-HIV drugs have died (Robert Koch Institut 2000 HIV/AIDS-Halbjahresbericht I/2000; Epidemiol. Bulletin 15 September, pp 1–16).
  J. Biosc, Vol. 28 No. 4, June 2003, 383–4122003
HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells are detectable in most individuals with active HIV-1 infection but decline with prolonged viral suppression
 Pitcher C J, Quittner C, Peterson D M, Connors M, Koup R A, Maino V C and Picker L J
  In 1999, Pitcher et al also described a group of 9 “long-term nonprogressors (with) untreated HIV-1 infection for 7–15 years”, compared to controls with a “decline of (T cells) with antiretroviral therapy”
  Nat. Med. 5 518–525, 19991999
Living on the edge,
 Simmons Todd
  Story about Dennis Leoutsakas, 47, a former IV drug user, who has been HIV-positive since 1978 he thinks, when he last shared a needle. He is still living disease-free as of 1995. He has never taken AZT or any other antiretroviral drugs. He believes taking charge of his life was the single most important thing he has done to promote his ongoing health. The article also includes a brief description of 8 HIV+ Australians who have been healthy and HIV-positive for at least 15 years.
  The Advocate, Dec. 5, 1995.1995
Long-term survivors may hold key clues to puzzle of AIDS
 Altman Lawrence
  Profiles a long-time survivor, Newton Butler, from San Francisco, who has been HIV+ for at least 10 years, maybe 15 years. He is a picture of health. Works full-time, hikes, exercises, and has never taken anti- HIV medication.
  New York Times, Science Section, January 24, 1995.1995
Immunologic and virologic studies in long-term non-progressor HIV infected individuals.
 Aiuti F, D'Offizi G
  The patients were asymptomatic with HIV infection documented for at least 8 years, they had never received antiretroviral treatment and their CD4 levels were always above 500/cmm.
  J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 1995 Jul-Sep;9(3):82-71995
Long-term non-progression of HIV-1 in a patient coinfected with HTLV-II.
 Willy RJ, Salas CM, Macalino GE, Rich JD
  "A 37-year-old man coinfected with HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus type II presumably through injection drug use had a high CD4+ count and low HIV viral load without anti-retroviral therapy for over six years."
  Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1999 Dec;35(4):269-701999
Status of long-term asymptomatic HIV-1 infection correlates with viral load but not with virus replication properties and cell tropism.
 Candotti D, Costagliola D, Joberty C, Bonduelle O, Rouzioux C, Autran B, Agut H
  "Qualitative and quantitative virological parameters were investigated in 68 long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) HIV-1-infected patients and 9 slow-progressor controls. LTNP status was defined as an asymptomatic HIV infection for at least 8 years, a stability of CD4+ cell counts > or =600 cells/mm3 and no antiretroviral therapy."
  J Med Virol 1999 Jul;58(3):256-631999
Caution: should we be treating HIV infection early?.
 Levy JA.
  “These drugs can be toxic and can be directly detrimental to a natural immune response to HIV…. This effective antiviral immune response is characteristic of long-term survivors who…have not been on any therapy. …[T]he current antiviral therapies…do not bring about the results achieved by a natural host anti-HIV response." “Effective antiviral immune response is characteristic of long-term survivors who have been infected for over 20 years, have no symptoms, and have not been on any therapy”
  Lancet. 1998 Sep 19;352:982-3.1998
Higher socioeconomic status is associated with slower progression of HIV infection independent of access to health care.
 Schechter MT, Hogg RS, Aylward B, Craib KJ, Le TN, Montaner JS.
  "In order to identify socioeconomic characteristics associated with slower progression of HIV infection, we conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 729 homosexual men. The study compared non-progressors (defined as subjects who, at a follow-up visit during the period October 1989-December 1990, had been HIV positive for at least 5 years, had a CD4 count > 0.5 x 10(9)/l, had a Karnofsky score of 100%, were at Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Stage III or less, and had never received zidovudine or prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) with rapid progressors (defined as those who had developed AIDS other than Kaposi's sarcoma within 6 years of seroconversion, or within 5 years of enrollment if already seropositive)."
  J Clin Epidemiol 1994 Jan;47(1):59-671994
 Irwin Matt
  "Says Nagesh Shirgoppikar, a medical consultant to Salvation Army, 'Our experience in treating HIV positive persons over the past decade shows that all the components of comprehensive psychological, emotional, physical and conventional medical treatment are very important. If a person is treated wholly, he is fine. Our patients have remained asymptomatic for up to ten years, and enjoy perfect health without anti-retroviral drugs.' " (Chinai 2001)