|Co-factors||Glucocorticoids||Treatment of AIDS risk groups||Treatment of asthma (cocaine abusers)|
|Physician's Desk Reference|| ||No author
| ||glucocorticoid aerosols were approved by the FDA in 1976 to treat chronic respiratory condition and asthma|
| ||Thomson Healthcare||1999|
|Respiratory effects of cocaine free basing among habitual cocaine users|| ||Tashkin DP et al
| ||smoking crack cocaine induced asthma in 14 individuals who had no history of asthma|
| ||Chest 110(4) : 904-10, 1996||1996|
|Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with steroid-dependent asthma|| ||Dziedziczko A, Banach-Wawrzenczyk E
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Pneumonol Alergol Pol 1997;65(5-6):399-405||1997|
|A case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with bronchial asthma following long-term corticosteroid therapy|| ||Suzuki N, Yoshimoto K, Arai Y, Miyamoto Y, Fukushima N, Sano Y.
| ||"A 50-year-old man, who developed bronchial asthma at the age of 43 and was treated continuously with corticosteroids from the beginning of the first treatment, was admitted with exacerbation of exertional dyspnea. In spite of various treatments for bronchial asthma, such as theophylline, beta-stimulants, anti-allergic drugs and steroid-inhalation, asthmatic symptoms did not improve and he continued to receive intravenous administration of steroids. Five months after admission, he suddenly developed severe respiratory failure and died after five days. Autopsy revealed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and marked atrophy of adrenal glands. No evidence of malignancy or hematologic disease was seen. Serum HIV antibody was negative. Secondary immunodeficiency induced by long-term corticosteroid administration of over 7 years was considered to be the cause of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia."|
| ||Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1991 Jul;29(7):878-84||1991|
|Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as a complication of methotrexate treatment of asthma.|| ||Kuitert LM, Harrison AC.
| ||"A 32 year old man with chronic severe asthma, requiring maintenance oral corticosteroids, was started on a weekly dose of methotrexate. Eleven weeks later he developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia... Pneumocystis pneumonia should be considered in asthmatic patients taking methotrexate who present with fever, pulmonary infiltrates, and hypoxia."|
| ||Thorax 1991 Dec;46(12):936-7||1991|
|Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia due to corticosteroids.|| ||Farr RW.
| ||"A patient receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy for asthma had two episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) 8 years apart. She had no other causes of immunosuppression. Experimental evidence indicates that corticosteroid administration causes a reduction in T lymphocytes mediated by suppression of cytokines. Corticosteroid therapy is a rare but possible independent predisposition to PCP."|
| ||South Med J 1992 Jan;85(1):52-3||1992|