Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsHemophilia / factor VIIIAIDS symptomsLymphocytopenia
Human T cell leukemia virus type III antibody, lymphadenopathy, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in hemophiliac subjects.
 Kreiss, J.K., L.W. Kitchen, H.E. Prince, C.K. Kasper, A.L. Goldstein, E.H. Naylor, O. Preble, J.A. Stewart & M. Essex,
  According to the foreign-protein hypothesis, hiv seropositivity in hemophilia patients is a marker to 1) the number of transfusions received before hiv (a rare contaminant of factor VIII) was eliminated from the blood supply in 1984, 2) the lifetime dose of foreign proteins received and 3) the foreign-protein mediated immuno-deficiency. => “HTLV-III [HIV]-seropositive hemophiliac subjects, on average, had been exposed to twice as much concentrate during the previous year as seronegative hemophiliac subjects. The seropositive group had a significantly lower mean helper/suppressor T cell ratio and absolute helper T cell level that the seronegative group...It is concluded that HTLV-III antibody occurs with high frequency in hemophiliac subjects, and is related to the amount of factor VIII or IX concentrate infused.”
  Am. J. Med. 80: 345-350. 1986.1986
Hemophiliac immunodeficiency: influence of exposure to factor VIII concentrate, LAV/HTLV-III, and herpesviruses.
 Sullivan, J.L., E.E. Brewster, D.B. Brettler, A.D. Forsberg, S.H. Cheeseman, K.S. Byron, S.M. Baker, D.L. Willitts, R.A. Lew & E.H. Levine,
  According to the foreign-protein hypothesis, hiv seropositivity in hemophilia patients is a marker to 1) the number of transfusions received before hiv (a rare contaminant of factor VIII) was eliminated from the blood supply in 1984, 2) the lifetime dose of foreign proteins received and 3) the foreign-protein mediated immuno-deficiency => Sullivan et al. deduced from a comprehensive study of hemophiliacs that "hemophiliacs receiving commercial factor VIII concentrate experience several stepwise incremental insults to the immune system: alloantigens in factor VIII concentrate [etc.] ... Seropositivity to LAV/HTLV-III (HIV) was 70% for the hemophiliac population and ... varied directly with the amount of factor VIII received". Only 30% of hemophiliacs who had received less than 400 units factor VIII per kg per year were HIV-positive, but 80% of those who had received about 1000 units, and 93% of those who had received over 2100 units per kg per year were HIV-positive
  J. Pediatr, 1986, 108: 504-5101986
Effects of factor VIII concentrates on the immune system in hemophilic patients.
 Schulman, S
  According to the foreign-protein hypothesis, hiv seropositivity in hemophilia patients is a marker to 1) the number of transfusions received before hiv (a rare contaminant of factor VIII) was eliminated from the blood supply in 1984, 2) the lifetime dose of foreign proteins received and 3) the foreign-protein mediated immuno-deficiency => Schulman observed that "a high annual consumption" of factor VIII concentrate "predisposed" to HIV-seroconversion.
  Annals of Hematology, 1991, 63: 145-151.1991
Comparison of different methods for detecting human immune deficiency virus in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive hemophiliacs.
 Schneweis, K. E., Ackermann, A., Friedrich, A., Kleim, J. P., Kornau, K. & Ruff, R.,
  "The results suggest that reactivation of HIV (particles, RT in cultures, antigen/antibody reactions, "HIV-PCR") occurs when immune deficiency has become manifest" (about haemophilacs)
  J. Med. Virol. 29:94-101. 1989.1989
HTLV-III antibody status and immunological abnormalities in haemophilic patients.
 Moffat, E. H., Bloom, A. L. & Mortimer, P. P.,
  "The OKT4 subset was reduced in both seropositive (p<0.01) and seronegative (p<0.05) haemophiliacs but there was no difference between seropositive and seronegative patients"
  Lancet I:935. 1985.1985
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among patients attending hemophilia treatment centers and mortality experience of hemophiliacs in the United States.
 Johnson, R. E., Lawrence, D. N., Evatt, B. L., Bregman, D. J., Zyla, L. D., Curran, J. W., Aledort, L. M., Eyster, M. E., Browstein, A. P. & Carman, C. J.,
  According to the foreign-protein hypothesis, hiv seropositivity in hemophilia patients is a marker to 1) the number of transfusions received before hiv (a rare contaminant of factor VIII) was eliminated from the blood supply in 1984, 2) the lifetime dose of foreign proteins received and 3) the foreign-protein mediated immuno-deficiency => The CDC reported that the AIDS cases are "older than the other hemophilia treatment center patients (p<0.005), with a median age of 34 years"
  Am. J. Epidemiol. 121:797-810. 1985.1985
The impact of a very high purity of factor VIII concentrate on the immune system of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected hemophiliacs: a randomized, prospective, two-year comparison with an intermedate purity concentrate.
 Biasi R et al.
  “In the group [of 10 asymptomatic HIV-positive hemophiliacs] switched to the very high purity [Factor VIII] concentrate there was no significant change of the CD4 cell counts over the 96-week follow-up period, whereas in the group continued on the intermediate purity concentrate [also 10 asymptomatic HIV-positive hemophiliacs], a highly significant decline was detected (p < .013) [indicates that CD4 cell counts are affected by the purity of blood products]”
  Blood. 1991;78(8):1919-22.1991
Hemophiliacs with HIV. Slower progression of the infection among younger patients and at higher dosages of factor concentrates
 Astermark J, Berntorp E, Stigendal L, Johnsson H.
  "HIV disease progression and the effect of replacement therapy with clotting factor concentrates (CFCs) were studied in 100 Swedish haemophiliacs, mean age at seroconversion 29 years (range, 4-72). On average 16 years after seroconversion, 67 per cent of the patients had CD4+ cell counts of < 200 x 10(6)/l, 50 per cent had developed AIDS, and 58 per cent had died. HIV disease progression was significantly slower in those aged less than 28 (median age) at seroconversion (P = 0.004). Moreover, mortality was inversely correlated to total annual CFC consumption after adjustment for age and HIV-related therapy, i.e., Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs (P = 0.014)..."
  Lakartidningen 1998 Jan 7;95(1-2):48-501998
Effect of Age on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I-Induced Changes in Lymphocyte Populations Among Persons with Congenital Clotting Disorders.
 Fletcher, M.A., J.W. Mosley, J. Hassea, G.E Gjerset, J. Kaplan, J.W. Parker, E. Donegan, J.M. Lusher, H. Lee & Transfusion Safety Study Group,
  Fletcher et al. published a median T4/T8-cell ratio of 1.4, with a low 10-percentile of 0.8, in a group of 154 HIV-free hemophiliacs, and also showed a steady decline of T-cell counts with treatment years (Fletcher et al., 1992).
  Blood 80: 831-840. 1992.1992
CD4 Cells in HIV-1 Infected Hemophiliacs: Effect of Factor VIII Concentrates.
 Goldsmith, J .M., J. Deutsche, M. Tang & D. Green,
  “Early in 1988, 13 patients were elected to receive monocolonal antibody purified factor VII (high purity [blood clotting] concentrate)…[if one patient with a severe drop of CD4 counts due to another disease is omitted from analysis] the CD4 value for the remaining 12 patients in the high purity group is 308 +/- 158, not significantly different from the baseline value. On the other hand, the CD4 value for the subjects treated with intermediate purity concentrate fell significantly (to 176 +/- 148). While 5 subjects in the high purity group had an increase in CD4 counts, all patients receiving intermediate purity concentrate had a decrease in the CD4 cell count.”
  Thromb. Haemost. 66: 415-419. 1991.1991
Long-term follow-up of hemophiliacs with lymphocytopenia or thrombocytopenia.
 Eyster, M.E., D.A. Whitehurst, P.M. Catalano, C.W. McMillan, S.H. Goodnight, C.K. Kasper, J.C. Gill, L.M. Aledort, M.W. Hilgartner, P.H. Levine, J.R. Edson, W.E. Hathaway, J .M. Lusher, E.M., Gill, W.K. Poole & S.S. Shapiro.
  "the frequency of lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia was increased in multitransfused factor VIII-deficient hemophiliacs before the advent of AIDS". A multicenter study investigating the immune systems of 1,551 hemophiliacs, treated with factor VIII from 1975 to 1979, documented lymphocytopenia in 9.3%...
  Blood 66: 1317-1320, 19851985
Purity of factor VIII concentrates and serial CD4 counts.
 Hilgartner, M.W., J.D. Buckley, E.A. Operskalski, M.C. Pike & J.W. Mosley
  Hilgartner et al. reported individual increases of T-cell counts of up to 50% in a group of 36 HIV-positive hemophiliacs treated with purified factor VIII whose average T-cell count had declined 1% during 6 months
  Lancet, 1993, 341: 1373-13741993
Unresponsiveness to skin testing with bacterial antigens in patients with haemophilia A not apparently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
 Sharp, R.A., S.M. Morley, J.S. Beck & G.E.D. Urquhart,
  "Five out of 12 such patients had a mild T4 lymphocytopenia, and this may have been related to parenteral administration of large quantities of protein."
  J. Clin. Pathol, 1987, 40: 849-852.1987
T4 lymphopenia in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.
 Beck JS, Potts RC, Kardjito T, and Grange JM
  "We now report the relatively frequent occurence of moderate CD4 lymphopenia in patients with untreated but otherwise uncomplicated pulmonary TB." The authors also comment on some similar findings in leprosy, as well as in HIV-negative hemophiliacs
  Clin Exp Immunol, Volume 60, 49-54.1985
Risks of immunodeficiency, AIDS, and death related to purity of factor VIII concentrate.
 Goedert, J.J.. A.R. Cohen, C.M. Kessler, S. Eichinger, S.V. Seremetis, C.S. Rabkin, EJ. Yellin, P.S. Rosenberg & L.M. Aledort.
  Goedert et al. have reported that "T-cell counts fell less rapidly with high purity products"
  Lancet, 1994, 344: 791-792.1994
Three-year randomised study of high-purity or intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrates in symptom free HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs: effects on immune status.
 Seremetis, S.V., L.M. Aledort, G.E. Bergman, R. Bona, G. Bray, D. Brettler, M.E. Eyster, C. Kessler, T.-S. Lau, J. Lusher & E. Rickles
  Seremetis et al. established that the T-cells of HIV-positive hemophiliacs were not depleted after treatment with pure factor VIII for three years. Indeed, the T-cell counts of 14 out of 31 HIV-positive hemophiliacs increased up to 25% over the three-year period of treatment with purified factor VIII-despite infection by HIV. By contrast, in the group treated with unpurified factor VIII, the percentage of those with less than 200 T-cells per ml increased from 7% at the beginning of the study to 47% at the end.
  Lancet, 1993, 342: 700-7031993
The impact of a very high purity of factor VIII concentrate on the immune system of human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs: a randomized, prospective, two-year comparison with an intermediate purity concentrate.
 De Biasi, R., A. Rocino, E. Miraglia, L. Mastrullo & A.A. Quirino
  De Biasi et al. showed that over a period of two years the average T-cell counts of ten HIV-positive hemophiliacs treated with non-purified, commercial factor VIII declined two-fold, while those of matched HIV-positive controls treated with pure factor VIII remained unchanged. Moreover, four out of six anergic HIV-positive patients treated with purified factor VIII recovered immunological activity.
  Blood, 1991, 78: 1919-1922.1991