Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsMalnutritionImmuno-deficiencyMicronutrient (vitamins…) deficiency
Beta-carotene in HIV infection.
 Coodley GO et al.
  In a randomized trial, daily supplementation with 180 mg of beta-carotene for 4 weeks was associated with a small increase in total white blood cell count, an increase in CD4 cell count, and a beneficial change in CD4/CD8 ratio compared with study participants receiving a placebo. These parameters decreased when participants in the beta-carotene arm were switched to the placebo arm.
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993; 6: 272-276.1993
Micronutrient concentrations in the HIV wasting syndrome.
 Coodley GO et al.
  The severity of the clinical manifestations of AIDS is proportional to the degree of the nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin A deficiency is more prevalent among HIV-positive persons compared with HIV-negative individuals.
  AIDS 1993a; 7: 1595-1600.1993
Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression.
 Baum MK et al.
  Development of vitamin A or B12 deficiency was significantly associated with a decline in CD4 cell count in a longitudinal study in HIV-positive gay men. In the same study, normalization of vitamin A, vitamin B12, and zinc was significantly associated with higher CD4 cell count, a finding that was not affected by the use of AZT.
  AIDS 1995; 9: 1051-1056.1995
Specific nutrient abnormalities in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection.
 Beach RS et al.
  An optimal nutritional status as well as adequate vitamin levels are known to be by themselves enough to mitigate the risk of AIDS in people who react positively on the tests for HIV. Vitamin A deficiency is more prevalent among HIV-positive persons compared with HIV-negative individuals.
  AIDS 1992; 6: 701-708.1992
Dietary micronutrient intake and risk progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected homosexual men.
 Tang AM et al.
  “Lower serum levels of vitamin A were associated with a faster rate of progression among men who participated in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)”
  Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 1-15.1993
A prospective study of dietary intake and AIDS in HIV- seropositive homosexual men.
 Abrams B et al.
  “Among well nourished HIV seropositive men who participated in the San Francisco Men’s Health Study, high energy-adjusted vitamin A intake at baseline was associated with higher CD4 cell count at baseline, as well as with lower risk of developing AIDS during the 6 year period follow up” .
  JAIDS 1993; 6: 949-958.1993
Vitamin A deficiency in non-vitamin-supplemented patients with AIDS: a cross-sectional study.
 Karter DL et al.
  Scientific evidence strongly suggests that nutritional and antioxidant deficiencies are a requisite prior to progressing to AIDS. Vitamin A deficiency is more prevalent among HIV-positive persons compared with HIV-negative individuals.
  J AIDS Hum Retrovirol 1995; 8: 199-203.1995
Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment
 Tamura J et al.
  “Vitamin B12 treatment led to an increase in the number of lymphocytes, including CD8+ cells, not only in [Vit. B12 deficient] patients but also in control subjects, and to a significant increase of NK cell activity in patients”
  Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 1999 Apr;116:28-32.1999
Single nutrients and immunity.
 Beisel WR.
  Vitamin B6 deficiency produces failure of several components of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C deficiency impairs phagocytosis and cell-mediated immune reactions. Vitamin E deficiency also alters immune responsiveness. Zinc deficiency generates lymphoid atrophy, reduces lymphocyte responses and skin delayed hypersensitivity. Copper and selenium deficiencies impair T and B lymphocyte functions. Dietary deficiencies of selected amino acids such as glutamine and arginine also alter immunity.
  Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 35: 417-468.1982
Immunomodulation in humans caused by beta-carotene and vitamin A.
 Prabhala RH et al.
  Vitamin A deficiency results in reduction in the weight of the thymus, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer cell and macrophage activities, and increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells.
  Nutr Res 1990; 10: 1473.1990
Serum retinal and HIV-1 RNA viral load in rapid and slow progressors.
 Camp WL et al.
  In Rwanda higher likelihood of survival was noted among HIV-positive women with higher serum retinol levels.
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum retroviral 1998; 18: 401-406.1998
HIV-1 infection in women is associated with severe nutritional deficiencies.
 Baum MK et al.
  In Thailand, HIV-positive pregnant women in the first trimester with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/cubic mm had mean serum vitamin A beta-carotene levels 37% lower than those in HIV-negative individuals
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 16: 272-278.1997
Serum carotene deficiency in HIV-infected patients.
 Ullrich R et al.
  Vitamin A deficiency is more prevalent among HIV-positive persons compared with HIV-negative individuals.
  AIDS 1994; 8: 661-665.1994
Vitamins in HIV disease progression and vertical transmission.
 Fawzi WW, Hunter DJ.
  “Numerous observational studies report inverse association between vitamin status, measured bio-chemically or as levels of dietary intake, and the risk of disease progression... Vitamin supplements may be one of the few potential treatments that are inexpensive enough to be made available to HIV-infected persons in developing countries”.
  Epidemiology 1998; 9: 457-466.1998
Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascarbate in chronically and acutely infected cell.
 Harakeh S, Jariwalla RJ, Pauling L.
  In addition to vitamin A, studies show that “HIV-positive” individuals are at higher risk of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E. Furthermore, deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 1990; 87: 7245-7249.1990
Mechanistic aspects of ascarbate inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus.
 Harakeh S et al.
  In addition to vitamin A, studies show that “HIV-positive” individuals are at higher risk of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E. Furthermore, deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS.
  Chemico-biological Interactions 1994; 91: 207-215.1994
NUTRITIONAL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF AIDS, SCIENTIFIC BASES (Southern African Development Community (SADC), Health Ministers Meeting, Johannesburg, South Africa, January 20-21, 2003)
 Giraldo Roberto
  A growing number of scientific trials implicate low serum vitamin A levels as a risk factor for HIV-positive individuals to progress into the clinical manifestations of AIDS (Garewal HS et al, A preliminary trial of beta-carotene in subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, J Nutr 1992; 122: 728-732, Landesman S, Vitamin A relationships to mortality in HIV disease and effects on HIV infection: recent and late breaking studies. Presented at forum, Lawton Chiles International House, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, May 16, 1996, Loya S et al, The carotenoid halocynthiaxanthin: a novel inhibitor of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and type 2, Arch Biochem Biophys 1992; 293: 208-212, Watson RR et al, Enhanced survival by vitamin A supplentation during retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS, Life Sci 1988; 43: 13-18, Yang Y et al, Retinoic acid inhibition of ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus-associated apoptosis of peripheral blood cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 3051-3055)
  Roberto Giraldo website2003
Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression.
 Tang AM et al.
  Deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS. Lower vitamin E levels increased the risk of progression to AIDS and low serum vitamin B12 levels were associated with a twofold increase in the risk for progression.
  AIDS 1997; 11: 613-620.1997
Nutritional status and immune responses in mice with murine AIDS are normalized by vitamin E supplementation.
 Wang Y et al.
  In addition to vitamin A, studies show that “HIV-positive” individuals are at higher risk of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E. Furthermore, deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS.
  J Nutr 1994; 124: 2024-2032.1994
Modulation of immune function and cytokine production by various levels of vitamin E supplementation during murine AIDS.
 Wang Y et al.
  In addition to vitamin A, studies show that “HIV-positive” individuals are at higher risk of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E. Furthermore, deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS.
  Immunopharmacol 1995; 29: 225-233.1995
Low serum vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with faster human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression.
 Tang AM et al.
  Deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS. Lower vitamin E levels increased the risk of progression to AIDS and low serum vitamin B12 levels were associated with a twofold increase in the risk for progression.
  J Nutr 1997; 127: 345-351.1997
Association of vitamin B6 status with parameters of immune function in early HIV-1 infection.
 Baum MK et al.
  Deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS. Vitamin B6 deficiency in “HIV-positive” individuals has been associated with reduced natural killer cell cytotoxicity and impaired mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation
  JAIDS 1991; 4: 1122-1132.1991
Subnormal serum concentration of 1,25 -vitamin D in HIV infection: Correlation with degree of immune deficiency and survival.
 Haug C et al.
  In addition to vitamin A, studies show that “HIV-positive” individuals are at higher risk of deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E. Furthermore, deficiencies of B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin D increment the risk of progression of “HIV-positive” individuals to AIDS.
  JID 1994; 169: 889-893.1994
Serum vitamin A and beta-carotene levels in pregnant women infected with HIV-1.
 Phuapradit W et al.
  In a longitudinal study in Miami, HIV-positive women with CD4 counts less than 200/cubic mm were more likely to have lower levels of plasma selenium and vitamin A an E than men with similar CD4 cell counts
  Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 564-567.1996
The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women.
 Coutsoudis A et al.
  In a placebo-controlled trial in South Africa among children born to HIV-positive women, Vitamin A supplements resulted in approximately 50% reduction in diarrheal morbidity and progression to AIDS among HIV-positive children
  Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1076-1081.1995
Relationship of serum cooper and zinc levels to HIV seropositivity and progression to AIDS.
 Graham NM et al.
  In a case-control study nested in the MACS study, patients who progressed to AIDS had significantly lower levels of serum zinc compared with nonprogressors and HIV-negative participants.
  J AIDS 1991; 4: 976-980.1991
Effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency on infant mortality and perinatal HIV transmission.
 Graham N et al.
  “In Rwanda, low levels of serum vitamin A among HIV-infected women were associated with increased risk of infant death..."
  Paper presented at the National Conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Infections: December 12-16, 1993; Baltimore, Maryland, USA.1993
Carotenoid status of pregnant women with and without HIV infection in Malawi.
 Lan Y et al.
  “Detection of vaginal HIV-1 DNA was associated with abnormal vaginal discharge, lower absolute CD4 cell count, and severe vitamin A deficiency”
  East Afr Med J 1999; 76: 133-137.1999
Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania.
 Fawzi, W.W., Msamanga, G.I., Spiegelman, D., et al.
  In Tanzania : “Multivitamin supplementation is a low-cost way of substantially decreasing adverse pregnancy outcomes and increasing T-cell counts in HIV-1 infected women”
  JAIDS 2000; 23: 246-254.2000
Vitamin A status and supplementation and its effects on immunity in children with AIDS.
 Hussey G et al.
  Increased number of natural killer cells in HIV-infected children has also been observed following vitamin A supplementation in South Africa
  Program and abstracts of the XVII international vitamin A consultative group meeting: 1996, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Washington DC: International Life Sciences Institute: pages 6, 81.1996
Vitamin A, immunity, and infection.
 Semba RD et al.
  Vitamin A deficiency results in reduction in the weight of the thymus, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer cell and macrophage activities, and increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells.
  Clin Inf Dis 1994; 19: 489-499.1994
Nutrition and HIV infection.
 Kiure AK, Msamanga GI, Fawzi WW.
  No abstract
  AIDS in Africa. 2nd edition. Essex M, Mboup S, Kanki PJ, Marlink RG, Tlou SD. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2002: 419-435.2002
Increased Mortality Associated with Vitamin A Deficiency During HIV 1 Infection.
 Semba RD et al.
  In a longitudinal study among HIV-positive IV drug users in Baltimore, low serum retinal levels were associated with a fourfold increase in risk for mortality after adjusting for CD4 cells counts. “More than 15% of the HIV-1-seropositive individuals had plasma vitamin A levels less than 1.05 micromol/L, a level consistent with vitamin A deficiency. The HIV-1-seropositive individuals had lower mean plasma vitamin A levels than HIV-1-seronegative individuals (p<.001). Vitamin A deficiency was associated with lower CD4 levels among both seronegative individuals (p<.05) and seropositive individuals (p<.05).”.
  Arch Intern Med. 1993 Sep 27;153:2149-54.1993
Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users.
 Semba RD et al.
  “In a study carried out among HIV-positive homosexual men, development of Vitamin A deficiency over an 18-month period was associated with a decline in CD4 cell count, widely used as a marker of HIV immune impairment. Normalization of vitamin A was associated with higher CD4 cell counts... The risk of death among HIV-infected subjects with adequate serum vitamin A levels was 78% less, when compared with Vitamin A-deficient subjects”.
  JIF 1994; 171: 1196-1202.1995
The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function.
 Semba RD et al.
  Vitamin A deficiency results in reduction in the weight of the thymus, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer cell and macrophage activities, and increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells.
  Nutr Rev 1998; 56: S38-S48.1998
Vitamin A and HIV infection.
 Semba RD et al.
  Micronutrient deficiencies in HIV-positive individuals are associated with faster progression to AIDS.
  Proc Nutr Soc 1997; 56: 459-569.1997
Relationship of trace elements, immunological markers, and HIV-1 infection progression.
 Allavena C et al.
  Selenium deficiency in HIV-positive individuals has been observed to increase risk of death among adults
  Biol Trace Elem Res 1995; 47: 133-138.1995
Zinc as a cofactor in HIV-induced immunosuppression.
 Falutz J et al.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  JAMA 1988; 259: 2850-2851.1988
Status of selected nutrients and progression of HIV-1 infection.
 Bogden JD et al.
  Plasma zinc and magnesium levels were shown to be significant predictors of CD4 cell count among HIV-positive individuals in the United States
  Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 809-815.2000
Single nutrient deficiency and cell-mediated immune responses. III. Vitamin A.
 Chandra RK, Au B.
  Vitamin A deficiency results in reduction in the weight of the thymus, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, impaired natural killer cell and macrophage activities, and increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells.
  Nutr Res 1981; 1: 181-185.1981
Micronutrients and immune functions, an overview.
 Chandra RK
  Vitamin B6 deficiency produces failure of several components of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C deficiency impairs phagocytosis and cell-mediated immune reactions. Vitamin E deficiency also alters immune responsiveness. Zinc deficiency generates lymphoid atrophy, reduces lymphocyte responses and skin delayed hypersensitivity. Copper and selenium deficiencies impair T and B lymphocyte functions. Dietary deficiencies of selected amino acids such as glutamine and arginine also alter immunity.
  Ann NY Acad Sci 1990; 587: 9-16.1990
Micronutrients and immune function.
 Bendich A, Chandra RK.
  Vitamin B6 deficiency produces failure of several components of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C deficiency impairs phagocytosis and cell-mediated immune reactions. Vitamin E deficiency also alters immune responsiveness. Zinc deficiency generates lymphoid atrophy, reduces lymphocyte responses and skin delayed hypersensitivity. Copper and selenium deficiencies impair T and B lymphocyte functions. Dietary deficiencies of selected amino acids such as glutamine and arginine also alter immunity.
  New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 1990.1990
Randomized Trial of Effects of Vitamin Supplements on Pregnancy Outcomes and T Cell Counts in HIV-1 Infected Women in Tanzania
 Wafaie W. Fawzi, et. al.,
  A 1998 study of pregnant, HIV-positive women in Tanzania showed that simply providing them with inexpensive micronutrient supplements produced beneficial effects and decreased adverse pregnancy outcomes. The researchers found that women who received prenatal multivitamins had heavier placentas, gave birth to healthier babies and showed a noticeable "improvement in fetal nutritional status, enhancement of fetal immunity, and decreased risk of infections."
  The Lancet, Vol. 351 (May 16, 1998), pp. 1477-82.1998