|Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in African patients.|| ||Clumeck, N. Sonnet, J. Taelman, H. Mascart-Lemone, F. de Bruyere, D. Vandeperre, P. Dasnoy, J. Marcelis, L. Lamy, M. Jonas, C. Eyckmans, L. Noel, H. Vanhaeverbeek, M. & Butzler, J.P.
| ||"A wide range of prevalent [in Africa] protozoal and helminthic infections have been reported to induce immunodeficiency"|
| ||New England Journal of Medicine, 1984, 310, 492-497.||1984|
|Serologic and immunologic studies in patients with AIDS in North America and Africa.|| ||Quinn, T.C. Piot, P. McCormick, J.B. Feinsod, F.M. Taelman, H. Kapita, B. Stevens, W. & Fauci, A.S.
| ||"Africans are frequently exposed, due to hygenic conditions and other factors, to a wide variety of viruses, including CMV, EBV, hepatitis B virus, and HSV, all of which are known to modulate the immune system...Furthermore, the Africans in the present study are at an additional risk for immunologic alterations since they are frequently afflicted with a wide variety of diseases, such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, and filariasis, that are also known to have a major effect on the immune system"|
| ||Journal of the American Medical Association, 1987, 257, 2617-2621||1987|
|Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS.|| ||Bentwich Z, Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z
| ||The AIDS epidemic in Africa is very different from the epidemic in the West. As suggested here by Zvi Bentwich, Alexander Kalinkovich and Ziva Weisman, this appears to be primarily a consequence of the over-activation of the immune system in the African population, owing to the extremely high prevalence of infections, particularly helminthic, in Africa. Such activation shifts the cytokine balance towards a T helper 0/2 (Th0/2)-type response, which makes the host more susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and less able to cope with it.|
| ||Immunol Today 1995 Apr;16(4):187-91||1995|