|The effect of alcohol on the immune system and cytokines|| ||Daniluk J, Kandefer-Szerszen M.
| ||"Chronic alcoholism is a disease, which is known to affect individual's resistance to infections. Alcohol has a variety of short- and long-term effects on cell mediated and humoral immune response. Alcohol also affects the production, site of action and metabolism of cytokines, which are regulatory peptides of the immune and inflammatory response of lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and a variety of other cell types."|
| ||Postepy Hig Med Dosw 1998;52(1):49-65||1998|
|Consequences of alcohol consumption on host defence.|| ||Szabo G.
| ||"...Chronic and even acute, moderate alcohol use can increase host susceptibility to infections caused by bacterial and viral pathogens. Impaired host defence after alcohol exposure appears to be linked to a combination of decreased inflammatory response, altered cytokine production, and abnormal reactive oxygen intermediate generation. Furthermore, cellular immunity, particularly antigen-specific immune response, is impaired by both acute and chronic alcohol use. Although T lymphocyte functions can be directly affected by ethanol, decreased antigen presenting cell function appears to be a key element in the ethanol-induced decrease in cell-mediated immunity..."|
| ||Alcohol and Alcoholism 1999 Nov-Dec;34(6):830-41||1999|
|Is alcohol consumption a cofactor in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?|| ||Wang Y, Watson RR.
| ||"Excessive alcohol (EtOH) consumption and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are two major public health problems in the United States. Overwhelming evidence is showing that heavy EtOH ingestion broadly suppresses the various arms of immune response, seriously impairing the body's normal host defense to invading microbes and tumorigenesis. The onset of clinical symptoms of AIDS (low CD4+ T cells count, opportunistic infections, and tumors) is quite variable among HIV+ individuals with a mean incubation time 3-10 years following seroconversion. Because of the deleterious effects of chronic EtOH consumption on cytokine release, immune response, host defense, nutritional status, and oxidative stress, it has been believed to be a possible cofactor that could enhance the host's susceptibility to infections, and subsequently increase the rate of AIDS development. The purpose of this review is to present evidence indicating clinical disorders during EtOH ingestion in murine AIDS. These EtOH-induced abnormalities may promote a more rapid development of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals."|
| ||Alcohol 1995 Mar-Apr;12(2):105-9||1995|