|Immunomodulating properties of MDMA alone and in combination with alcohol: a pilot study.|| ||Pacifici R, Zuccaro P, Farre M, Pichini S, Di Carlo S, Roset PN, Ortuno J, Segura J, de la Torre R.
| ||"Cell-mediated immune response after the administration of MDMA alone and in combination with alcohol was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over pilot clinical trial conducted in four healthy MDMA consumers who received single oral doses of 75 mg MDMA (n = 2) or 100 mg MDMA (n = 2), alcohol (0.8 mg/kg), MDMA and alcohol, or placebo. Acute MDMA treatment produced a time-dependent immune dysfunction associated with MDMA plasma concentrations. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio as well as in the percentage of mature T lymphocytes, probably because of a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of T helper cells. The decrease in CD4 T-cell counts and in the functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation was dose-dependent... Combined MDMA and alcohol produced the greatest suppressive effect on CD4 T-cell count and PHA-stimulated lymphoproliferation. Immune function was partially restored at 24 hours. These results provide the first evidence that recreational use of MDMA alone or in combination with alcohol alters the immunological status."|
| ||Life Sci 1999;65(26):PL309-16||1999|
|Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine alone and in combination with ethanol on the immune system in humans.|| ||Pacifici R, Zuccaro P, Hernandez Lopez C, Pichini S, Di Carlo S, Farre M, Roset PN, Ortuno J, Segura J, Torre RL.
| ||"Cell-mediated immune response and release of cytokines after the administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") alone and in combination with ethanol were assessed in a double blind, randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial. Six healthy male recreational users of MDMA participated in four different experimental sessions, with a washout interval between sessions of 1 week, in which single oral doses of MDMA (100 mg), ethanol (0.8 g/kg), the combination of both drugs, and placebo were tested. Acute MDMA administration produced a time-dependent immune dysfunction in association with serum concentrations of the drug as well as cortisol stimulation kinetics. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio due to a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of CD4 T-helper cells and simultaneous increase in natural killer (NK) cells... The combination of MDMA and ethanol caused the highest suppressive effect on CD4 T cells and increasing effect in NK cells... The immune function shows a trend toward baseline levels at 24 h after MDMA kinetics. This transient defect in immunological homeostasis, if temporarily repeated, might alter the immune response with a risk for the general health status."|
| ||J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001 Jan;296(1):207-15||2001|
|Kneeling at the Crystal Cathedral.|| ||Sadownick D.
| ||Since amphetamines became popular only during the AIDS epidemic, their toxicity, like that of many other new drugs, has been credited to HIV. Nevertheless, drug treatment specialists have informally descibed amphetamine diseases. Says one specialist from St. Vincentís Hospital in New York: "We are just starting to see heavy usage types in our emergency rooms in New York City. Whatís troubling about this drug isnít just the way it destroys the body life expectancy for those intravenously injecting crystal is two years but the bizarre psychotic symptoms that develop".Even an orthodox AIDS specialist from AIDS project Los Angeles, now director of an AIDS foundation in France, acknowledges the pathogenicity of amphetamines, although coded in HIV-jargon, "there is ample evidence to suggest that crystal accelarates premature progession to full-blown AIDS in people dealing with HIV infection. Studies have shown that crystal eats T-cells for breakfast, lunch and dinner."|
| ||Genre 1994; 40-45, 86-90, December/January 1994.||1994|