|Maternal and infant factors associated with failure to thrive in children with vertically transmitted Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 infection: the prospective, P2C2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Multicenter study.|| ||Miller TL et al.
| ||“FTT [failure to thrive among children of HIV-positive women] was associated with a history of pneumonia, maternal use of cocaine, crack or heroin during pregnancy...”|
| ||Pediatrics. 2001 Dec;108(6):1287-96.||2001|
|Growth of infants prenatally exposed to cocaine/crack: comparison of a prenatal care and a no prenatal care sample|| ||Richardson GA, Hamel SC, Goldschmidt L, Day NL
| ||"It has not been possible to draw firm conclusions about the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure because of methodologic problems involved in the conduct of this research. This study, designed to overcome some of these methodologic problems, is a prospective, longitudinal investigation of the effects of prenatal cocaine/crack exposure on neonatal growth in two samples, one with and one without prenatal care (PC). In both samples, cocaine/crack use during early pregnancy predicted reduced gestational age, birth weight, length, and head circumference, after controlling for the significant covariates of cocaine use. In a comparison of the samples, the offspring of the NPC/cocaine group were significantly smaller than were the offspring of the PC/no cocaine group, whereas the offspring of the PC/cocaine and NPC/cocaine groups did not differ."|
| ||Pediatrics 1999 Aug;104(2):e18||1999|
|A prospective study of infants born to women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1.|| ||Blanche S et al.
| ||“Separate analysis of the infants according to maternal risk factors showed that maternal drug addiction was associated with some abnormalities but that the association may be independent of HIV infection. Below-normal height and weight at birth and a higher rate of malformations, notably facial, have been reported in several studies of the infants of drug-addicted mothers, even before the HIV epidemic…The high incidence of unexplained suddent death reported in this study can also be attributed to maternal drug addiction…10 infants had morphological anomalies, including a labiopalatal cleft in 4 cases. 9 of the 10 children were born to drug-addicted mothers”|
| ||N Engl J Med. 1989 Jun 22;320(25):1643-8.||1989|
|Intrauterine cocaine and crack exposure: neonatal outcome|| ||Datta-Bhutada S, Johnson HL, Rosen TS
| ||"We enrolled 386 mother-infant pairs, including 130 matched control pairs, in the study. The course of pregnancy and delivery was followed and neonatal outcome was assessed by physical and neurologic examination, as well as by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the Neonatal Stress Scale. The cocaine-exposed neonates had significantly more adverse effects than the matched control infants. Birth weight, length, and head circumference were significantly lower in the cocaine- and crack-exposed infants (p < or = 0.001). There were significantly more premature infants (p < or = 0.007) in this group. They demonstrated significant abnormalities on the neurologic examination (p < or = 0.001), inferior performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (p < or = 0.001), and higher scores on the Neonatal Stress Scale (p < or = 0.001)... The single most important predictor of neonatal outcome is the frequency, quantity, and type of cocaine used."|
| ||J Perinatol 1998 May-Jun;18(3):183-8||1998|
|Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers.|| ||Rogers, M. F., Ou, C.-Y., Rayfield, M., Thomas, P. A., Schoenbaum, E. E., Abrams, E., Krasinski, K., Selwyn, P. A., Moore, J., Kaul, A., Grimm, K. T., Bamji, M., Schochetman, G.,
| ||Ten HIV-free infants born to intravenous drug-addicted mothers had the following AIDS-defining diseases "failure to thrive, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, … and developmental delay..."|
| ||N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 1649-1654, 1989||1989|