Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsBabiesImmuno-deficiency
Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug-abusing mothers
 Culver, K. W., Ammann, A. J., Patridge, J. C., Wong, D. F., Wara, D. W. and Cowan, M. J.
  One HIV-positive and 18 HIV-free infants born to intravenous drug-addicted mothers had only half as many leukocytes at birth than normal controls. At 12 months after birth, the capacity of their lymphocytes to proliferate was 50- 70% lower than that of lymphocytes from normal controls. "The CD4/CD8 ratio decreased with age in the drug-exposed infants compared with control infants (P less than 0.005). ... Our data demonstrate that infants of intravenous drug-using mothers have distinct immunologic differences at birth compared with non-drug-exposed infants and that these persist throughout the first year of life. The cause appears unrelated to intrauterine viral infection, suggesting a direct toxic effect of the drugs on fetal immunologic development."
  J. Pediatr. 111: 230-235, 19871987
Perinatal exposure to cocaine: Human studies.
 Finnegan, L. P., Mellot, J. M., Williams, L. R. and Wapner, R. J.
  No abstract
  Cocaine: Pharmacology, Physiology and Clinical Strategies, pp. 391-409, Lakoski, J. M., Galloway, M. P. and White, F. J. (eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 19921992
Natural history of somatic growth in infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus.
 Moye J, Rich KC, Kalish LA, Sheon AR, Diaz C, Cooper ER, Pitt J, Handelsman E, for the Women and Infants Transmission Study Group.
  Over 80% of pediatric AIDS cases in America and Europe are babies born to mothers who were intravenous drug users. The remainder is due to congenital diseases such as hemophilia or reflects the normal low incidence of AIDS-defining diseases among newborns, particularly among newborns of poor and homeless mothers.
  The Journal of Pediatrics 1996; 128: 58-67.1996
Infants born to mothers seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus.
 Mok JQ, De Rossi A, Ades AE, Giaquinto C, Grosch-Woerner I, Peckham CS.
  Over 80% of pediatric AIDS cases in America and Europe are babies born to mothers who were intravenous drug users. The remainder is due to congenital diseases such as hemophilia or reflects the normal low incidence of AIDS-defining diseases among newborns, particularly among newborns of poor and homeless mothers.
  Lancet 1987; i: 1164-1168.1987
Children born to women with HIV-1 infection: natural history and risk of transmission.
 European Collaborative Study.
  Over 80% of pediatric AIDS cases in America and Europe are babies born to mothers who were intravenous drug users. The study further points out that "children with drug withdrawal symptoms" were most likely to develop diseases, and that children with no withdrawal symptoms but "whose mothers had used recreational drugs in the final 6 months of pregnancy were intermediate" in their risk to develop diseases. The remainder 20% is due to congenital diseases such as hemophilia or reflects the normal low incidence of AIDS-defining diseases among newborns, particularly among newborns of poor and homeless mothers.
  Lancet 1991; 337: 253-260.1991
Association of maternal drug use during pregnancy with maternal HIV culture positivity and perinatal HIV transmission.
 Rodriguez EM, Mofenson LM, Chang B-H, Rich KC, Fowler MG, Smeriglio V, Landesman S, Fox HE, Diaz C, Green K, Hanson IC, for the Women and Infants Transmission Study.
  Over 80% of pediatric AIDS cases in America and Europe are babies born to mothers who were intravenous drug users. The remainder is due to congenital diseases such as hemophilia or reflects the normal low incidence of AIDS-defining diseases among newborns, particularly among newborns of poor and homeless mothers.
  AIDS 1996; 10: 273-282.1996
Innocent victims.
 Toufexis A.
  HIV-free "crack babies" of drug-addicted mothers have exactly the same diseases as HIV-positive infants
  Time 1991; 137: 56-60,1991
Narcotic addiction, pregnancy, and the newborn.
 Fricker, H. S. and Segal, S.
  Between 1954 and 1973, 101 heroin-addicted mothers gave birth to 149 babies at Vancouver General Hospital. Thirty-seven percent of the infants had low birth weights and two thirds were born preterm. Average birth weight was 2,710 gm as compared with an overall average of 3,420 gm for this hospital. Tobacco and alcohol abuse, and poor maternal nutrition probably contributed to the growth retardation. Withdrawal symptoms were observed in 68% of the babies, and this may have been aggravated by multiple drug use, which was prevalent, including alcohol, barbiturates, and "soft drugs." Neonatal mortality rate of 6.7% and a stillbirth rate of 4% resulted in a perinatal mortality rate of 10.7%. Prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, and other perinatal complications related to an unfavorable social background accounted for most neonatal deaths, but none was attributable directly to narcotic withdrawal.
  Am. J. Dis. Child. 132: 360-366, 19781978
Fetal and postnatal growth of children born to narcotic-dependent women.
 Lifschitz, M. H., Wilson, G. S., Smith, E. O. and Desmond, M. M.
  We studied the effect of heroin and methadone on birth length and 3-year stature of children of untreated heroin addicts (n = 22), women receiving methadone maintenance therapy (95% were polydrug users) (n = 21), and a drug-free comparison group (n = 28), after adjustment for biologic, demographic, and health variables... These data indicate that the effect of heroin and methadone on intrauterine growth cannot be differentiated from that of associated factors, and that postnatal growth of children exposed to narcotics during pregnancy is no more impaired than that of a high-risk comparison group. Children of all three groups deserve continued observation and efforts to improve their environment in order that their full potential might be achieved.
  J. Pediatr. 102: 686-691, 19831983
Maternal narcotic abuse and the newborn.
 Alroomi, L. G., Davidson, J., Evans, T. J., Galea, P. and Howat, R.
  In 50 infants born to women who continued to take heroin during all or part of their pregnancy the drug withdrawal symptoms were mild and were noted in 21 infants (42%). Only nine infants required treatment. Sudden infant death syndrome occurred in two infants at 4 and 6 months.
  Arch. Dis. Child. 63: 81-83, 19881988
Infants born to mothers seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus.
 Mok JQ, De Rossi A, Ades AE, Giaquinto C, Grosch-Woerner I, Peckham CS.
  Previous reports from the European Collaborative Study group have documented that "nearly all children were born to mothers who are intravenous drug users"
  Lancet 1987; i: 1164-1168.1987
Relation of the Course of HIV Infection in Children to the Severity of the Disease in their Mothers at Delivery.
 Blanche S, Mayaux M-J, Rouzioux C, Teglas J-P, Firtion G, Monpoux F, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Meier F, Tricoire J, Courpotin C, Vilmer E, Griscelli C, Delfraissy J-F (The French Pediatric HIV Infection Study Group)
  Blanche et al. have observed for three years 71 HIV-positive newborns who had shared intravenous drugs with their mothers prior to birth. After three years, 61 of these HIV-positive children were healthy, although some had developed "intermittent" diseases from which they had recovered during their first 18 months. Contrary to the HIV hypothesis, the T-cells of these children increased after birth from low to normal levels despite the presence of HIV. Only 10 of these children developed encephalopathy and other AIDS-defining diseases of which 9 died during their first 18 months of life. The study points out that the baby’s risk of developing AIDS was related "directly with the severity of the disease in the mother at the time of delivery". The potential recovery of babies from congenital AIDS diseases acquired as a result of maternal drug use was apparently impaired by iatrogenic intoxication with AZT and other anti-AIDS drugs, "prophylactic treatment [with] ... sulfamethoxazale and zidovudine [AZT] was started earlier and was more frequent among the children born to mothers with class IV disease (AIDS)". Based on the severity of their symptoms about 60% of the children were treated prophylactically with AZT for at least one month, and 50% were treated with sulfa-drugs.
  The New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 330: 308-312.1994
Viral hepatitis associated with illicit parenteral use of drugs.
 Dismukes, W. E., Karchmer, A. W., Johnson, R. F. and Dougherty, W. J.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  J. Am. Med. Assoc. 206: 1048-1052, 19681968
No place to go. Crack cocaine and HIV have created a generation of babies who call the hospital home
 Marton BA
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  Volunt Leader 1998 Fall;39(3):51998