Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsCigaretteCandidiasis
The association between cigarette smoking and selected HIV-related medical conditions.
 Conley LJ, Bush TJ, Buchbinder SP, Penley KA, Judson FN, Holmberg SD
  "To clarify the effect of cigarette smoking on the development of conditions associated with HIV infection. Prospective and retrospective cohort study, with interview and examination twice a year since 1988. Data on 516 HIV-infected men from cohorts of homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco, Denver and Chicago, who were repeatedly interviewed and examined between 1988 and 1992, were analysed. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and loss of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, diagnosis of any AIDS-defining illness, and specific diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and community-acquired pneumonia. Cigarette smoking was not associated with an increased likelihood or rate of developing KS, PCP or AIDS, but was associated with developing ... oral candidiasis...in these HIV-infected men"
  AIDS 1996 Sep;10(10):1121-71996
Cigarette smoking, bacterial pneumonia, and other clinical outcomes in HIV-1 infection. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS.
 Burns DN, Hillman D, Neaton JD, Sherer R, Mitchell T, Capps L, Vallier WG, Thurnherr MD, Gordin FM.
  "Cigarette smoking has been associated with impaired immune defenses and an increased risk of certain infectious and neoplastic diseases in HIV-1 seronegative populations. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and clinical outcome in a prospective cohort of 3221 HIV-1-seropositive men and women enrolled in the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS... However, current smokers were more likely than never smokers to develop ... oral candidiasis (RH = 1.37; 95% CI 1.16-1.62; p = 0.0002)..."
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996 Dec 1;13(4):374-831996