Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsCigarettehairy leukoplakia
The association between cigarette smoking and selected HIV-related medical conditions.
 Conley LJ, Bush TJ, Buchbinder SP, Penley KA, Judson FN, Holmberg SD
  "To clarify the effect of cigarette smoking on the development of conditions associated with HIV infection. Prospective and retrospective cohort study, with interview and examination twice a year since 1988. Data on 516 HIV-infected men from cohorts of homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco, Denver and Chicago, who were repeatedly interviewed and examined between 1988 and 1992, were analysed. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and loss of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, diagnosis of any AIDS-defining illness, and specific diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and community-acquired pneumonia. Cigarette smoking was not associated with an increased likelihood or rate of developing KS, PCP or AIDS, but was associated with developing ... hairy leukoplakia in these HIV-infected men."
  AIDS 1996 Sep;10(10):1121-81996
Changing conditions and treatments in a dynamic cohort of ambulatory HIV patients: the HIV outpatient study (HOPS).
 Moorman AC, Holmberg SD, Marlowe SI, Von Bargen JC, Yangco BG, Palella FJ, Ward DJ, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Joseph P, Alexander WA, Aschman DJ.
  "...we analyzed such data electronically and prospectively collected in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) from 1992 through 1996 from 1876 patients seen in 11,755 clinic visits to ten HIV clinical practices... A nested analysis showed that HIV-infected cigarette smokers were at substantially greater risk of pneumonia (relative hazard [RH] = 2.3), bronchitis (RH = 1.7) and hairy leukoplakia (RH = 1.9) than nonsmokers..."
  Ann Epidemiol 1999 Aug;9(6):349-571999