|Co-factors||Recreational drugs||Cigarette||hairy leukoplakia|
|The association between cigarette smoking and selected HIV-related medical conditions.|| ||Conley LJ, Bush TJ, Buchbinder SP, Penley KA, Judson FN, Holmberg SD
| ||"To clarify the effect of cigarette smoking on the development of conditions associated with HIV infection. Prospective and retrospective cohort study, with interview and examination twice a year since 1988. Data on 516 HIV-infected men from cohorts of homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco, Denver and Chicago, who were repeatedly interviewed and examined between 1988 and 1992, were analysed. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and loss of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, diagnosis of any AIDS-defining illness, and specific diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and community-acquired pneumonia. Cigarette smoking was not associated with an increased likelihood or rate of developing KS, PCP or AIDS, but was associated with developing ... hairy leukoplakia in these HIV-infected men."|
| ||AIDS 1996 Sep;10(10):1121-8||1996|
|Changing conditions and treatments in a dynamic cohort of ambulatory HIV patients: the HIV outpatient study (HOPS).|| ||Moorman AC, Holmberg SD, Marlowe SI, Von Bargen JC, Yangco BG, Palella FJ, Ward DJ, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Joseph P, Alexander WA, Aschman DJ.
| ||"...we analyzed such data electronically and prospectively collected in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) from 1992 through 1996 from 1876 patients seen in 11,755 clinic visits to ten HIV clinical practices... A nested analysis showed that HIV-infected cigarette smokers were at substantially greater risk of pneumonia (relative hazard [RH] = 2.3), bronchitis (RH = 1.7) and hairy leukoplakia (RH = 1.9) than nonsmokers..."|
| ||Ann Epidemiol 1999 Aug;9(6):349-57||1999|