Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsCigarettePneumonia
The association between cigarette smoking and selected HIV-related medical conditions.
 Conley LJ, Bush TJ, Buchbinder SP, Penley KA, Judson FN, Holmberg SD
  "To clarify the effect of cigarette smoking on the development of conditions associated with HIV infection. Prospective and retrospective cohort study, with interview and examination twice a year since 1988. Data on 516 HIV-infected men from cohorts of homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco, Denver and Chicago, who were repeatedly interviewed and examined between 1988 and 1992, were analysed. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and loss of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, diagnosis of any AIDS-defining illness, and specific diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and community-acquired pneumonia. Cigarette smoking was not associated with an increased likelihood or rate of developing KS, PCP or AIDS, but was associated with developing community-acquired pneumonia...in these HIV-infected men"
  AIDS 1996 Sep;10(10):1121-61996
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: relationship between histopathologic features and mortality.
 King TE Jr, Schwarz MI, Brown K, Tooze JA, Colby TV, Waldron JA Jr, Flint A, Thurlbeck W, Cherniack RM.
  "It is hypothesized that the extent and severity of fibrosis and cellularity found on lung biopsy determine the prognosis and response to therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of this study was to determine which histopathologic features predict survival in IPF. We prospectively studied 87 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) confirmed by surgical lung biopsy... The effects of age, sex, and smoking were also included in the analysis. Sixty-three patients died during the 17-yr study period.. A history of cigarette smoking, the level of dyspnea, and the degree of lung stiffness at presentation were also shown to be independent factors predicting survival..."
  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001 Sep 15;164(6):1025-322001
The effect of cigarette smoking on the development of AIDS in HIV-1-seropositive individuals.
 Nieman RB, Fleming J, Coker RJ, Harris JR, Mitchell DM.
  The toxins of cigarette smoke suppresses the immune system : in two groups of otherwise matched HIV-positive male homosexuals, cigarette smokers developed pneumonia twice as often as non-smokers over a period of 9 months
  AIDS 1993; 7: 705-710.1993
Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: a concise review.
 Ryu JH, Colby TV, Hartman TE, Vassallo R.
  "Interstitial lung diseases (also known as diffuse infiltrative lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders of known or unknown cause... This review summarizes the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of four interstitial lung disorders that have been linked to smoking. These disorders include desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Available evidence suggests most cases of desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis are caused by cigarette smoking in susceptible individuals..."
  Eur Respir J 2001 Jan;17(1):122-322001
The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia at an urban public hospital: influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and initial severity of illness.
 Park DR, Sherbin VL, Goodman MS, Pacifico AD, Rubenfeld GD, Polissar NL, Root RK; The Harborview CAP Study Group.
  "In a prospective study, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was investigated among consecutive patients admitted to an academic, urban public hospital in Seattle. The study population was uniquely young, was predominantly male, and had high rates of ... cigarette smoking ... and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection..."
  J Infect Dis 2001 Aug 1;184(3):268-772001
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia induced by cigarette smoking: positive lymphocyte stimulation test of a cigarette extract
 Matsui S, Yamashita N, Maruyama M, Araya J, Oda H, Fujita T, Miwa T, Hayashi R, Arai N, Kashii T, Kobayashi M.
  "A 21-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with high fever, general fatigue and dyspnea... Examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the clinical course led to a diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The patient improved without steroid therapy. We suspected that the disease was related to smoking because the patient had started smoking seven days before the onset of the symptoms. Because a lymphocyte stimulation test gave a positive reaction to a cigarette extract, a challenge test was done. After this, the patient had fever and hypoxemia. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking induces acute eosinophilic pneumonia."
  Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2000 Oct;38(10):807-12000
Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia diagnosed upon hospital admission.
 Farr BM, Bartlett CL, Wadsworth J, Miller DL. British Thoracic Society Pneumonia Study Group.
  "A case-control study of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults admitted to hospital is reported. Cases were surviving patients (n = 178) admitted to 14 hospitals in England. ... The two groups were compared with regard to risk factors for pneumonia using a standardized postal questionnaire... These data suggest that cigarette smoking is the major avoidable risk factor for acute pneumonia in adults."
  Respir Med 2000 Oct;94(10):954-632000
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following cigarette smoking.
 Shiota Y, Kawai T, Matsumoto H, Hiyama J, Tokuda Y, Marukawa M, Ono T, Mashiba H.
  "Two cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia following cigarette smoking are analyzed for characteristic features. The first patient noted dyspnea 14 days after initiation of smoking. The second patient noted dyspnea 12 days after beginning to smoke. Both cases had characteristic features including occurrence at an age younger than 30 years; less than 1 month duration of cigarette smoking before onset of disease; and no identifiable cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia apart from smoking. We believe that acute eosinophilic pneumonia following cigarette smoking, which has characteristic features as described above, should be considered as a distinct subtype of AEP."
  Intern Med 2000 Oct;39(10):830-32000
Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia diagnosed by general practitioners in the community.
 Farr BM, Woodhead MA, Macfarlane JT, Bartlett CL, McCraken JS, Wadsworth J, Miller DL.
  "The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for pneumonia diagnosed in the community by general practitioners, using a case control study in 29 general practices in Nottingham, U.K. Patients with radiographically confirmed pneumonia were compared with adults randomly selected from electoral registers corresponding to the catchment areas of the general practices taking part in the study. Sixty-six cases and 489 controls participated. Significant risk factors in univariate analysis included ... lifetime consumption of cigarettes. ... Since cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, these data suggest that cigarette smoking is the main avoidable risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia in adults."
  Respir Med 2000 May;94(5):422-72000
Other smoking-affected pulmonary diseases.
 Murin S, Bilello KS, Matthay R.
  "Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Smoking adversely affects many organ systems, but especially the lung. Carcinoma of the lung and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease account for most smoking-associated respiratory morbidity and mortality, and their association with smoking is both well established and widely recognized. "
  Clin Chest Med 2000 Mar;21(1):121-37, ix2000
Pneumococcal pneumonia: epidemiology and clinical features.
 Marrie TJ.
  "Pneumoccal pneumonia is a common illness; the highest incidence occurs at the extremes of age... Risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia include ... cigarette smoking ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization, accounting for up to 50% of all such cases. The mortality rate from this infection varies considerably in reported studies ranging from 7% to 36%."
  Semin Respir Infect 1999 Sep;14(3):227-31999
Changing conditions and treatments in a dynamic cohort of ambulatory HIV patients: the HIV outpatient study (HOPS).
 Moorman AC, Holmberg SD, Marlowe SI, Von Bargen JC, Yangco BG, Palella FJ, Ward DJ, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Joseph P, Alexander WA, Aschman DJ.
  "...we analyzed such data electronically and prospectively collected in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) from 1992 through 1996 from 1876 patients seen in 11,755 clinic visits to ten HIV clinical practices... A nested analysis showed that HIV-infected cigarette smokers were at substantially greater risk of pneumonia (relative hazard [RH] = 2.3), bronchitis (RH = 1.7) and hairy leukoplakia (RH = 1.9) than nonsmokers..."
  Ann Epidemiol 1999 Aug;9(6):349-571999
Proportion of community-acquired pneumonia cases attributable to tobacco smoking.
 Almirall J, Gonzalez CA, Balanzo X, Bolibar I.
  "To assess the population-attributable risk (PAR) of smoking and the effect of tobacco smoking on the development of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults. A population-based case-control study. Information on history of smoking and other risk factors was obtained by a questionnaire administered by interview... Two hundred five male and female patients (age, 15 to 74 years old) with CAP diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. They were matched to 475 control subjects randomly selected from the municipal census... Smoking any type of tobacco had an odds ratio (OR) of CAP of 2.0 for ever smokers (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 3.24); 1.88 for current smokers (95% CI, 1.11 to 3.19); and 2.14 for ex-smokers (95% CI, 1.26 to 3.65). A positive trend for increased risk of CAP was observed for an increase in the duration of the habit, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily, and cumulative cigarette consumption..."
  Chest 1999 Aug;116(2):375-91999
Bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: analysis of risk factors and prognostic indicators.
 Tumbarello M, Tacconelli E, de Gaetano K, Ardito F, Pirronti T, Cauda R, Ortona L.
  "This case control study assessed risk factors and prognostic indicators of 350 episodes of bacterial pneumonia in 285 HIV-infected patients. On univariate analysis, ... regular cigarette smoking (p < .001), ... were risk factors for community-acquired episodes of bacterial pneumonia..."
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998 May 1;18(1):39-451998
Cancer, cigarette smoking and premature death in Europe: a review including the Recommendations of European Cancer Experts Consensus Meeting, Helsinki, October 1996.
 Boyle P.
  "Additionally, cigarette smoking is a direct cause of ... pneumonia…"
  Lung Cancer 1997 May;17(1):1-601997
Cigarette smoking, bacterial pneumonia, and other clinical outcomes in HIV-1 infection. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS.
 Burns DN, Hillman D, Neaton JD, Sherer R, Mitchell T, Capps L, Vallier WG, Thurnherr MD, Gordin FM.
  "Cigarette smoking has been associated with impaired immune defenses and an increased risk of certain infectious and neoplastic diseases in HIV-1 seronegative populations. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and clinical outcome in a prospective cohort of 3221 HIV-1-seropositive men and women enrolled in the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS... However, current smokers were more likely than never smokers to develop bacterial pneumonia (RH = 1.57; 95% CI 1.14-2.15; p = 0.006)..."
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996 Dec 1;13(4):374-831996
The health consequences of cigarette smoking. Pulmonary diseases.
 Sherman CB.
  "Data from both prospective and retrospective studies have consistently shown increased mortality from COPD, pneumonia, and influenza among cigarette smokers compared with nonsmokers."
  Med Clin North Am 1992 Mar;76(2):355-751992