|Co-factors||Recreational drugs||Cocaine||Cortisol levels|
|Cocaine and Intensity of H.I.V. Are Related in a Study of Mice|| ||Grady Denise
| ||"Dr. Baldwin said that cocaine had powerful effects on both the nervous system and the immune system, and that it caused the body to produce steroid hormones and other substances that might affect H.I.V. and its ability to invade cells... Dr. Baldwin said that even though the study was done in mice, she thought the findings would apply to people... "|
| ||The New York Times, 15/02/2002||2002|
|Mechanisms of cocaine-induced decreases in immune cell function.|| ||Pellegrino TC, Dunn KL, Bayer BM.
| ||"... Since significant elevations in plasma corticosterone were observed with all routes of administration of cocaine…"|
| ||Int Immunopharmacol 2001 Apr;1(4):665-75||2001|
|Cocaine and alcohol interactions in humans: neuroendocrine effects and cocaethylene metabolism.|| ||Farre M, de la Torre R, Gonzalez ML, Teran MT, Roset PN, Menoyo E, Cami J.
| ||"The effects of 100 mg of intranasal cocaine in acute alcohol intoxication (0.8 g/kg) were evaluated in eight experienced and nondependent healthy volunteers in a double-blind double-dummy, controlled, randomized, crossover clinical study... The augmented subjective euphoria may explain why the drug combination is more likely to be abused than is cocaine or alcohol alone. Plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly higher after concomitant alcohol and cocaine use than with cocaine alone..."|
| ||J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997 Oct;283(1):164-76||1997|
|A neuroendocrine role in cocaine reinforcement.|| ||Goeders NE.
| ||"Cocaine stimulates the secretion of corticosterone and ACTH, probably through a CRF-related mechanism, indicating that the drug activates the HPA axis. Indeed, cocaine has been reported to produce anxiety and to precipitate episodes of panic attack during chronic use and withdrawal in humans and to induce anxiogenic behavior in animals... In these experiments, low-dose cocaine self-administration was related directly to stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone, such that plasma corticosterone was always greater than 150 ng/ml for rats which subsequently self-administered cocaine at doses of 0.125 mg/kg/infusion or lower, suggesting a threshold for the hormone in cocaine reinforcement..."|
| ||Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 May;22(4):237-59||1997|
|Role of corticosterone in the enhancement of the antibody response after acute cocaine administration.|| ||Stanulis ED, Matulka RA, Jordan SD, Rosecrans JA, Holsapple MP.
| ||"...Acute cocaine has been shown to elicit a rise in serum corticosterone.."|
| ||J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997 Jan;280(1):284-91||1997|
|Effects of intravenous cocaine on plasma cortisol and prolactin in human cocaine abusers.|| ||Baumann MH, Gendron TM, Becketts KM, Henningfield JE, Gorelick DA, Rothman RB.
| ||"The aim of the present work was to examine the cortisol and prolactin responses to acute cocaine administration in human cocaine users. Each subject served as his own control during intravenous saline placebo and cocaine (40 mg) infusion sessions. Cocaine significantly elevated plasma cortisol but did not affect prolactin. The rise in cortisol coincided with an increase in heart rate and blood pressure after cocaine. In agreement with studies in animals, our data suggest that cocaine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans."|
| ||Biol Psychiatry 1995 Dec 1;38(11):751-5||1995|
|Effects of cocaine on cortisol secretion in humans.|| ||Heesch CM, Negus BH, Keffer JH, Snyder RW 2nd, Risser RC, Eichhorn EJ.
| ||"The effects of acute cocaine administration on the pituitary adrenal axis in humans without a history of drug abuse are unknown. The authors studied 12 male volunteers twice in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized fashion. After intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg cocaine, cortisol levels were significantly higher than after placebo administration. The authors concluded that acute administration of cocaine to humans increases cortisol secretion."|
| ||Am J Med Sci 1995 Aug;310(2):61-4||1995|
|Acute infusions of cocaine result in time- and dose-dependent effects on lymphocyte responses and corticosterone secretion in rats.|| ||Bayer BM, Mulroney SE, Hernandez MC, Ding XZ.
| ||"In the present study, we investigated the effect of intravenously (i.v.) administered cocaine on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and NK cytolytic activity in rats implanted with indwelling jugular cannula. To assess whether the effects of cocaine were accompanied by adrenal gland activation, plasma corticosterone concentrations were also determined... Within 30 min, plasma corticosterone concentrations were maximally increased by 10-fold with 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of cocaine... This study demonstrates that a single i.v. infusion of cocaine results in a selective dose- and time-dependent immunosuppression which is preceded by transient increases in circulating levels of corticosterone."|
| ||Immunopharmacology 1995 Feb;29(1):19-28||1995|