|A review of the respiratory effects of smoking cocaine.|| ||Ettinger, N. A. and Albin, R. J.
| ||A variety of pulmonary complications related to the use of freebase cocaine have been reported in the medical literature. Pulmonary barotrauma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary hemorrhage, obliterative bronchiolitis, asthma, and pulmonary edema have all recently been described. The number of reports are few, reflecting either the low incidence of these complications or the lack of recognition of these phenomena as cocaine-related illnesses. The mechanism by which freebase cocaine can injure the lung is not well defined. Whether an abnormal immunologic response to cocaine freebase can result in hemorrhage, pneumonitis, bronchiolitis, or asthma remains speculative. Whether cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic factors play a role in the development of pulmonary edema in freebase smokers has not yet been determined. Likewise, the roles of either cocaine, tobacco, or adulterants in producing the observed abnormalities of lung function remain controversial. Further reporting of freebase-related pulmonary complications, as well as the development of appropriate animal models, is needed.|
| ||Am. J. Med. 87: 664-668, 1989||1989|
|Cocaine abuse and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: tale of two epidemics.|| ||Lerner, W. D.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Am. J. Med, 1989, 87: 661-663.||1989|
|Evidence of chronic damage to the pulmonary microcirculation in habitual users of alkaloidal ("crack") cocaine.|| ||Baldwin GC et al.
| ||“[‘crack’ cocaine] produces a near-instantaneous euphoric effect…Because of this property and growning concern over the risks of HIV transmission by the IV route, smoking of crack cocaine has largely replaced other modes of recreational cocaine use…[The findings in this study] suggest that a high proportion of seeming healthy crack users have chronic alveolar [lung sac] hemorrhage [bleeding] that is clinically inapparent [i.e. coughing up blood was rarely observed]”|
| ||Chest. 2002 Apr;121(4):1231-8.||2002|
|Cocaine: treatment perspectives, in Cocaine Use in America: epidemiologic and clinical perspectives|| ||Wesson D, Smith D.
| ||No abstract|
| ||N. Kozel and E. Adams (eds.) NIDA US Dept. HHS, Washington, DC, 1985;||1985|