|AIDS, drugs of abuse and the immune system: a complex immunotoxicological network.|| ||Pillai, R., Nair, B. S. and Watson, R. R.
| ||Two of the most interesting questions often asked about AIDS is why many people do not become immunodeficient or get complicating disease when first infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and what are the "risk factors" making some individuals more susceptible to the disease. A large majority of people with AIDS have a well established history of drug and alcohol abuse. Both drugs of abuse and alcohol have immunotoxic properties as evidenced by a number of studies. These include marked changes in the cellular, humoral and other components of the immune defense mechanism. Such a compromise of the immune system can render it susceptible to the development of AIDS after HIV infection. This paper reviews the evidence suggesting possible links between substance abuse and its immunotoxicology, and their possible roles in the pathogenesis of AIDS.|
| ||Arch. Toxicol. 65: 609-617, 1991||1991|
|The narcotic addict as a medical patient|| ||Sapira, J. D.
| ||Am. J. Med. 45: 555-588, 1968||1968|
|Susceptibility of addicts to infection and neoplasia.|| ||Harris, P. D. and Garret, R.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||New. Engl. J. Med. 287: 310, 1972||1972|
|Infectious complications of nonalcoholic drug abuse.|| ||Louria, D. B.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Annu. Rev. Med. 25: 219-231, 1974||1974|
|Recreational drugs and sexual behavior in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men.|| ||Ostrow DG, Beltran ED, Joseph JG, DiFranceisco W, Wesch J, Chmiel JS.
| ||"From the earliest case control studies conducted by the Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) Task Force on Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Jaffe et al., 1983) to recent studies of predictors of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV) infection (Penkower et al., 1991), recreational psychoactive drug use has been associated with HIV-related illness or infection among homosexual men."|
| ||Journal of Substance Abuse 1993; 5: 311-325||1993|
|Evidence that prior immune dysfunction predisposes to human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men.|| ||Marion SA, Schechter MT, Weaver MS, McLeod WA, Boyko WJ, Willoughby B, Douglas B, Craib KJP, O'Shaughnessy M.
| ||33 HIV-free male homosexuals from Vancouver, Canada, had "acquired" immunodeficiency prior to HIV infection. Again this study did not mention drug use, but in other articles the authors reported that all men of this cohort had used nitrites, cocaine and amphetamines.|
| ||JAIDS 1989; 2: 178-186||1989|
|We have to question the so-called 'facts'.|| ||Wells J.
| ||The health of male homosexuals is stabilized or even improved by avoiding recreational drugs. For example, in August 1993 there was no mortality during 1.25 years in a group of 918 British HIV-positive homosexuals who had "avoided the experimental medications on offer" and chose to "abstain from or significantly reduce their use of recreational drugs, including alcohol". Assuming an average 10-year latent period from HIV to AIDS, and a random distribution of infection times prior to AIDS, the virus-AIDS hypothesis would have predicted about 116 (918/10 x 1.25) AIDS cases among 918 HIV-positives over 1.25 years. Indeed, the absence of mortality in this group over 1.25 years corresponds to a minimal latent period from HIV to AIDS of over 1,148 (918 x 1.25) years. On July 1, 1994, there was still not a single AIDS case in this group of 918 HIV-positive homosexuals (J. Wells, London, personal communication).|
| ||Capital Gay 1993: 14-15, August 20th.||1993|
|Clinical features of drug use and drug use related to HIV.|| ||Brettle, R. P.
| ||A variety of important medical problems, both non-infective and infective in nature, are associated with drug use. A number of micro-organisms are associated with the non-sterile nature of injection drug use (IDU) whilst a number of blood borne viruses, including retroviruses such as HIV, are easily transmitted to individuals involved in the sharing of injection equipment. Practitioners require knowledge of infection and non-infection related medical conditions associated with IDU since they may mimic each other.|
| ||Int. J. STD & AIDS 7: 151-165, 1996||1996|
|The Drug-AIDS Hypothesis|| ||Duesberg Peter, Rasnick David
| ||Many drug diseases are consequences not only of direct drug toxicity, but also of frequent drug-induced suppression of appetite causing malnutrition and sleep depravation, (Wesson D, Smith D. Cocaine: treatment perspectives, in Cocaine Use in America: epidemiologic and clinical perspectives, N. Kozel and E. Adams (eds.) NIDA US Dept. HHS, Washington, DC, 1985) both of which are the world’s leading causes of immune suppression (Seligmann M, Chess L, Fahey JL, Fauci AS, Lachmann PJ, L'Age-Stehr J, Ngu J, Pinching AJ, Rosen FS, Spira TJ, Wybran J. AIDS—an immunologic reevaluation. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 1286-1292). These health risks are compounded by poverty due to the enormous costs of illicit drugs.|
| ||Continuum Feb./March 1997||1997|