Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsHeroinImmuno-deficiency
Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in parenteral heroin abusers and long-term methadone maintenance patients.
 Novick, D. M., Ochshorn, M., Ghali, V., Croxson, T. S., Mercer, W. D., Chiorazzi, N. and Kreek, M. J.
  Among heroin addicts from New York, having injected an average of 5.7 years, natural killer cell activity was reduced 2-fold and T4/T8-cell ratios from 2 to 1.5
  The Journal of Pharmacologyt and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 606-610, 19891989
Mechanistic implications of the findings that opiates and other drugs of abuse moderate T-cell surface receptors and antigenic markers.
 Donahoe, R. M., Bueso-Ramos, C., Donahoe, F., Madden, J. J., Falek, A., Nicholson, J. K. A. and Bokos, P.
  In a group of 21 long-term heroin addicts, the ratio of helper to suppresser T-cells declined during 13 years from a normal of 2 to less than 1, which is typical of AIDS, but only 2 of the 21 were infected by HIV
  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 496: 711-721, 19871987