|The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia at an urban public hospital: influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and initial severity of illness.|| ||Park DR, Sherbin VL, Goodman MS, Pacifico AD, Rubenfeld GD, Polissar NL, Root RK; The Harborview CAP Study Group.
| ||"In a prospective study, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was investigated among consecutive patients admitted to an academic, urban public hospital in Seattle. The study population was uniquely young, was predominantly male, and had high rates of ... injection drug use, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection..."|
| ||J Infect Dis 2001 Aug 1;184(3):268-77||2001|
|Increased risk of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected intravenous drug users without AIDS.|| ||Selwyn, P. A., Feingold, A. R., Hartel, D., Schoenbaum, E. E., Adderman, M. H., Klein, R. S. and Freidland, S. H
| ||Although patients with AIDS have been noted to be at risk for bacterial pneumonia as well as opportunistic infections, little is known about the risk of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected populations without AIDS. To determine the incidence of bacterial pneumonia in a well defined population of intravenous drug users (IVDUs), and to examine any association with HIV infection, we prospectively studied 433 IVDUs without AIDS, enrolled in a longitudinal study of HIV infection in an out-patient methadone maintenance program. At enrollment, 144 (33.3%) subjects were HIV-seropositive, 289 (66.7%) were seronegative. Over a 12-month period, 14 out of 144 (9.7%) seropositive subjects were hospitalized for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, compared with six out of 289 (2.1%) seronegative subjects. The cumulative yearly incidence of bacterial pneumonia was 97 out of 1000 for seropositives and 21 out of 1000 for seronegatives (risk ratio = 4.7, P less than 0.001).|
| ||AIDS 2: 267-272, 1988||1988|
|Clinical symptoms associated with seroconversion for HIV-1 among misusers of intravenous drugs: comparison with homosexual seroconverters and infected and non-infected intravenous drug misusers.|| ||Mientjes, G. H. C., van Ameijden, E. J. C., Weigel, H. M., van den Hoek, J. A. R. and Countinho, R. A
| ||To study the clinical symptoms associated with seroconversion for HIV-1 among misusers of intravenous drugs. Case-control study in cohorts of drug misusers and homosexual men. Outpatient clinic, Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam. Misusers of intravenous drugs from our prospective cohort who seroconverted for HIV. Controls were drug users positive for HIV, drug users negative for HIV, and homosexual men who had seroconverted. Five out of 18 (28%) drug users were admitted to hospital with bacterial pneumonia in the four to six months between their last visit at which they were HIV negative and their first visit when they were HIV positive. For comparison none of the 27 homosexual men who seroconverted for HIV, three out of 177 (2%) drug users negative for HIV, and 10 out of 112 (9%) drug users positive for HIV reported bacterial pneumonia. One out of the 18 drug users who seroconverted suffered from oesophageal candidiasis at the time of seroconversion. Other clinical symptoms did not differ between drug users who seroconverted and those who remained negative for HIV, probably due to the high background morbidity among the drug users. Seroconversion to HIV-1 among intravenous drug misusers is associated with bacterial pneumonia. Those drug users with previously negative test results for HIV who are admitted to hospital for bacterial pneumonia should be tested to detect primary infection with HIV-1.|
| ||Br. Med. J. 306: 371-373, 1993||1993|
|Incidence and spectrum of severe medical complications among hospitalised HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive narcotic drug users.|| ||Scheidegger C, Zimmerli W.
| ||In 1994, researchers from Switzerland reported their findings from a prospective study designed "to examine differences in the incidence and spectrum of diseases comprising 314 HIV-seronegative NDU, 217 HIV-seropositive NDU, and 10 NDU with admissions registered in either group (from a total of 1011 admissions)... HIV- seropositive NDU were more frequently admitted for infectious complications or various non-infectious medical complications (including as most frequent cases, 38 admissions for ill-defined episodes, 11 for repeated seizures, nine for acute pancreatitis, and six for adverse medical drug reaction). Moreover, they also tended to have a higher admission incidence density for intoxication, whereas there was no difference in admissions for suicide tentative or withdrawal reaction... However, individuals from both groups, seropositive and seronegative were admitted for "infectious complications", including non-opportunistic pneumonia, purulent bronchitis, tuberculosis, soft tissue infection, osteoarticular infection, endocarditis, primary bacteremia and disseminated candidiasis."|
| ||AIDS 1996, 10:1407-14.||1996|
|A larger spectrum of severe HIV-I-related disease in intravenous drug users in New York City.|| ||Stoneburner, R. L., Des Jarlais, D. C., Benezra, D., Gorelkin, L., Sotheran, J. L., Friedman, S. R., Schultz, S., Marmor, M., Mildvan, D. and Maslansky, R.
| ||Among intravenous drug users in New York representing a "spectrum of HIV-related diseases," HIV was only observed in 22 out of 50 pneumonia deaths.|
| ||Science 242: 916-919, 1988||1988|
|Bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: analysis of risk factors and prognostic indicators.|| ||Tumbarello M, Tacconelli E, de Gaetano K, Ardito F, Pirronti T, Cauda R, Ortona L.
| ||"This case control study assessed risk factors and prognostic indicators of 350 episodes of bacterial pneumonia in 285 HIV-infected patients. On univariate analysis, intravenous drug abuse (i.v.DA; p < .001 versus controls), ... were risk factors for community-acquired episodes of bacterial pneumonia..."|
| ||J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998 May 1;18(1):39-45||1998|
|Pulmonary complications of intravenous druf abuse : experience at an inner-city hospital|| ||O'Donnel AE et al
| ||on 51 IDUs, pulmonary complications included 9,8 % mycobacterium tuberculosis|
| ||Chest 94(2) 251-3, 1988||1988|