|Altered T-lymphocyte subsets in hospitalized intravenous drug abusers.|| ||Layon, J., Idris, A., Warzynski, M., Sherer, R., Brauner, D., Patch, O., McCulley, D. and Orris, P.
| ||Baseline immunologic abnormalities were identified in 16 hospitalized intravenous drug abusers ( IDAs ) without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Twelve (75%) of 16 had inverted helper-suppressor ratios. In seven patients (44%), the abnormal ratio resulted from an increase in the absolute number of suppressor cells with a normal number of helper T lymphocytes. In five patients (31%), the reduced ratio resulted primarily from decreased helper cells, immunophenotypic findings similar to those seen in patients with AIDS. These findings are similar to what has been noted in other groups at risk for AIDS. Longitudinal follow-up as well as studies of "healthy" IDAs are required to understand the prognostic implications of these data.|
| ||Arch. Intern. Med. 144: 1376-1380||1984|
|Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis in association with heroin addiction.|| ||Firooznia, H., Seliger, G., Abrams, R. M. et al.
| ||No abstract / Pubmed|
| ||Radiology 109: 291-296, 1973||1973|
|Incidence and spectrum of severe medical complications among hospitalised HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive narcotic drug users.|| ||Scheidegger C, Zimmerli W.
| ||In 1994, researchers from Switzerland reported their findings from a prospective study designed "to examine differences in the incidence and spectrum of diseases comprising 314 HIV-seronegative NDU, 217 HIV-seropositive NDU, and 10 NDU with admissions registered in either group (from a total of 1011 admissions)... HIV- seropositive NDU were more frequently admitted for infectious complications or various non-infectious medical complications (including as most frequent cases, 38 admissions for ill-defined episodes, 11 for repeated seizures, nine for acute pancreatitis, and six for adverse medical drug reaction). Moreover, they also tended to have a higher admission incidence density for intoxication, whereas there was no difference in admissions for suicide tentative or withdrawal reaction... However, individuals from both groups, seropositive and seronegative were admitted for "infectious complications", including non-opportunistic pneumonia, purulent bronchitis, tuberculosis, soft tissue infection, osteoarticular infection, endocarditis, primary bacteremia and disseminated candidiasis."|
| ||AIDS 1996, 10:1407-14.||1996|
|AIDS and tuberculosis.|| ||Goldman KP.
| ||Intravenous drug abusers appear to be at special risk of acquiring tuberculosis, and a high rate of infection in this group was reported well before AIDS began|
| ||Brit. Med, 1987, J. 295:511-512.||1987|
|A larger spectrum of severe HIV-I-related disease in intravenous drug users in New York City.|| ||Stoneburner, R. L., Des Jarlais, D. C., Benezra, D., Gorelkin, L., Sotheran, J. L., Friedman, S. R., Schultz, S., Marmor, M., Mildvan, D. and Maslansky, R.
| ||Among intravenous drug users in New York representing a "spectrum of HIV-related diseases," HIV was only observed in 11 out of 16 tuberculosis deaths|
| ||Science 242: 916-919, 1988||1988|
|Pulmonary complications of intravenous druf abuse : experience at an inner-city hospital|| ||O'Donnel AE et al
| ||on 51 IDUs, pulmonary complications included 19,6 % community acquired pneumonia|
| ||Chest 94(2) 251-3, 1988||1988|
|Dark Paradise: opiate addiction in America before 1940.|| ||Courtwright, D. T.
| ||No abstract|
| ||Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1982||1982|