|Immunomodulation by morphine and marijuana.|| ||Yahya MD, Watson RR.
| ||"The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances... They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals."|
| ||Life Sci 1987 Dec 7;41(23):2503-10||1987|
|Marijuana and cocaine impair alveolar macrophage function and cytokine production.|| ||Baldwin GC et al.
| ||“Use of marijuana and cocaine is on the rise in the United States. Although pulmonary toxicity from these drugs has occasionally been reported, little is known about their effects on the lung microenvironment. We evaluated the function of alveolar macrophages (AMs) recovered from the lungs of nonsmokers and habitual smokers of either tobacco, marijuana, or crack cocaine…These findings indicate that habitual exposure of the lung to either marijuana or cocaine impairs the function and/or cytokine production of AMs. The ultimate outcome of these effects may be an enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease, cancer, and AIDS.”|
| ||Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Nov;156(5):1606-13.||1997|