|The Mutagenicity of Alkylnitrites in the Salmonella Test|| ||Quinto I
| ||In 1980 appeared the first of several studies to demonstrate that the volatile nitrites are powerfully mutagenic, which is cause for concern, as almost all known carcinogens are also mutagens.|
| ||Bolletino Societa Italiana Biologia Sperimentale, 56:816-820, 1980.||1980|
|Amyl Nitrite and Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Homosexual Men.|| ||Jorgensen KA, Lawesson SO.
| ||“The carcinogenous potency of N-nitroso compounds [which can be formed within the body from volatile nitrites that are inhaled] is extraordinary. N-nitroso compounds show great organ specificity in their carcinogenic action in animal experiments...volatile nitrites, which are used as inhalants are mutagenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test...We therefore find it appropriate to suggest that amyl nitrite may cause Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men”|
| ||N Engl J Med. 1982 Sep 30;307(14):893-4.||1982|
|The Drug-AIDS Hypothesis|| ||Duesberg Peter, Rasnick David
| ||In addition to their cytotoxic potential, nitrites are among the best established mutagens and carcinogens (Lewis RJS. Food additives handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY 10003, 1989, Winter R. A consumer's dictionary of food additives. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, NY 10022, 1989, Mirvish SS, Williamson J, Babcook D, Sheng-Chong C. Mutagenicity of iso-butyl nitrite vapor in the Ames test and some relevant chemical properties, including the reaction of iso-butyl nitrite with phosphate. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1993; 21: 247-252, National Research Council. Diet, nutrition, and cancer. National Acad. Press, Washington, D.C., 1982)... The FDA also limits nitrites as food preservatives to less than 200 ppm (parts per million), because of direct toxicity and because "they have been implicated in an increased incidence of cancer" (Lewis RJS. Food additives handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY 10003, 1989) and because they are listed as carcinogens by the National Research Council since 1982 (National Research Council. Diet, nutrition, and cancer. National Acad. Press, Washington, D.C., 1982).|
| ||Continuum Feb./March 1997||1997|
|Toxicity, Immunosuppressive Effects and Carcinogenic Potential of volatile Nitrites: Possible relationship to Kaposi’s Sarcoma.|| ||Newell GR et al.
| ||“Many N-nitroso compounds have been shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals [possibly due to the formation of nitrosamines]...In all, 290 N-nitroso compounds have been tested for carcinogenicity and 252 (87%) have shown such activity...no species is known to be resistant...Organic nitrites which include amyl, butyl, and isobutyl nitrite, can react with amines and amides (amino acids, peptides, proteins and metabolic products) to form N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamides which are known to be teratogenic [chromosome damaging], mutagenic and carcinogenic”|
| ||Pharmacotherapy. 1984 Sep;4(5):284-91.||1984|