Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsRecreational drugsNitritesImmuno-deficiency
Acute blood toxicity of the abused inhalant, cyclohexyl nitrite
 Soderberg LS, Flick JT
  "Cyclohexyl nitrite is an abused nitrite inhalant. This is the first report of toxicity of cyclohexyl nitrite. Mice were exposed to 300-900 ppm cyclohexyl nitrite in an inhalation chamber for 45 min and then bled. Such treatment resulted in a 7-10% reduction in red blood cell counts, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. Both blood leucocyte counts and spleen cellularity were reduced by 40%. Unlike isobutyl nitrite, subchronic treatment of mice with cyclohexyl nitrite did not impair macrophage tumoricidal activity or production of reactive nitrogen intermediates, but did modulate B and T cell mitogen responses. The data suggest that cyclohexyl nitrite had cytotoxic activity, comparable to that of isobutyl nitrite, which might be related to the anaemia reported in abusers. The immunomodulatory properties of cyclohexyl nitrite differed from those of isobutyl nitrite."
  Int J Immunopharmacol 1997 May;19(5):305-101997
The acute toxicity of butyl nitrites
 Wood, R.W
  No abstract
  Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants. NIDA Research Monograph 83, eds.: Haverkos, H.W., Dougherty, J.A. U.S. Dept. Health & Human Services, Washington, DC, pp. 1-14 (1988).1988
Altered T-cell helper/suppressor ratio in mice chronically exposed to amyl nitrite
 Ortiz, J.S., Rivera, V.L.
  “The studies presented here [on mice] show that chronic inhalation of AN [amyl nitrites] can lead to a decrease in helper cells, thus alternating the T-cell H/S [Helper=CD4/Suppressor=CD8] ratio, which is the same phenomenon that occurs in AIDS victims. This suggests a link between AN inhalation and cellular immunity depression.”
  Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants. NIDA Research Monograph 83, eds.: Haverkos, H.W., Dougherty, J.A. U.S. Dept. Health & Human Services, Washington, DC, pp. 1-14 (1988).1988
Amyl nitrite alters human in vitro immune function.
 Dax, E.M., Adler, W.H., Nagel, J.E. et al.
  Effects on the human immune system of volatile nitrite inhalation were studied in 18 male volunteers. While nitrite inhalation decreased the absolute number of CD3+ T lymphocytes during the period of inhalation, cell numbers returned to pre-treatment levels within one week after cessation of the drug. Nitrite inhalation did not alter the percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ or CD19+ lymphocytes. Natural killer (NK) cell activity against K562 target cells was depressed by nitrite administration but returned to pre-inhalation or greater levels after nitrite discontinuation. Cell proliferation following cell activation by PHA, ConA and PWM was unaffected by amyl nitrite inhalation. We conclude that in humans inhalation of volatile nitrites causes cycles of modest immunosuppression, particularly in NK activity, followed by gradual recovery when the drug is not inhaled for several days.
  Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 13, 577-587 (1991).1991
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome occurring within 5 years of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1: The multicenter AIDS cohort study.
 Phair, J., Jacobson, L., Detels, R., et al.
  The study showed that among two HIV-positive groups of homosexuals those who developed AIDS had practiced receptive anal intercourse more than twice as much as those who remained healthy prior to and after HIV infection (which correlates directly with the use of nitrite vasodilaters).
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Res 5, 490-496 (1992).1992
Virologic and serologic markers of rapid progression to AIDS after HIV-1 seroconversion.
 Farzadegan H, Henrard DR, Kleeberger CA, Schrager L, Kirby AJ, Saah AJ, Rinaldo CR Jr, O'Gorman M, Detels R, Taylor E, Phair JP, Margolick JB.
  "The association between early virologic and immunologic events after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and progression of HIV-1 infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was studied among 59 homosexual men with documented time of seroconversion. Epidemiologic factors, such as number of lifetime sexual partners, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and other factors, also were studied. All 17 seroconverters in the cohort who developed AIDS within 3 years (rapid progressors = RPs) were compared with 42 men without AIDS for at least 6 years seroconversion (nonrapid progressors = non-RPs)... Up to seroconversion, the RPs had a significantly higher number of lifetime sexual partners than non-RPs (503 versus 171, respectively)..."
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996 Dec 15;13(5):448-551996
 Lauritsen John
  The third speaker at Gaithersburg meeting (sponsored by he National Institute on Drug Abuse "Technical Review: Nitrite Inhalants", held outside Washington, DC on the 23rd and 24th of May, 1994) was William Adler of the National Institutes of Health. His study was of 8 human volunteers, HIV-antibody-negative males, who inhaled poppers three times per day for one week, and then intermittently for another week and a half. Baseline immunological test batteries were run before, during, and after exposure. The investigators found that the main change was in natural killer (NK) cell activity, which dropped very sharply. They reached the conclusion: "The results showed that exposure to amyl nitrite can induce changes in immune function even after short exposure to moderate doses."
  New York Native 13 June 19941994
The Drug-AIDS Hypothesis
 Duesberg Peter, Rasnick David
  The pathogenicity of nitrite inhalants is the result of non-physiological chemical reactions. Nitrite inhalants react with all biological macromolecules, mutating and inactivating DNA and RNA, diazotizing proteins, killing vitamins and oxydizing hemoglobin to inactive methemoglobin (Duesberg PH. AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1992; 55: 201-277). Under these conditions nitrites are cytotoxic and immunotoxic in animals and humans (Haverkos HW, Dougherty JA (eds.) Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, 1988, US. Dept. Health & Human Services, Washington, DC, Goedert JJ, Neuland CY, Wallen WC, Greene MH, Mann DL, Murray C, Strong DM, Fraumeni JF, Jr., Blattner WA. Amyl nitrite may alter T lymphocytes in homosexual men. Lancet 1982; i: 412-416)... In 1995, the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences reconfirmed the nitrite-AIDS hypothesis. Based on exposure of mice to isobutylnitrites (IBN) (poppers) for 15 weeks the Institute published in 1995, "The results suggest that, in the absence of impaired pulmonary host defenses, IBN produces significant and partially reversible suppression of systemic humoral immunity" (Ratajczak HV, Thomas PT, House RV, Gaworski CL, Sherwood RL, Luster MI, Hagen KL, Abdo K, Jackson CD, Roycroft J, Aranyi C. Local versus Systemic Immunotoxicity of Isobutyl Nitrite Following Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Female B6C3F1 Mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1995; 27: 177-184).
  Continuum Feb./March 19971997