|Co-factors||Semen exposure||Anal sex||Immuno-deficiency|
|Effect of sexual practices on T cell subsets and delayed hypersensitivity in transsexuals and female sex workers.|| ||Ratnam KV.
| ||"To determine whether ano-receptive unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) practised by transsexuals produces immunological abnormalities we compared delayed hypersensitivity skin tests (DTH) and T cell helper (CD4) and suppressor (CD8) subsets in 57 transsexuals and 69 female sex worker controls. The populations were matched for age, duration of prostitution, number of clients and previous use of antibiotics. Heterosexual males and females and transsexuals who practised protected SI, were also included as controls. All were HIV negative... We conclude that ano-receptive sexual intercourse results in increased immunological abnormalities in these sex workers possibly as a result of rectal exposure to seminal alloantigens. These abnormalities could play an important role as co-factors in disease transmission."|
| ||Int J STD AIDS 1994 Jul;5(4):257-261||1994|
|Effect of ano-receptive homosexual practice on T lymphocytes and delayed hypersensitivity in transsexuals.|| ||Ratnam KV, Wong TW, Lee J, Kamarrudin A, Sng EH, Ong YW.
| ||"To determine whether ano-receptive sexual intercourse adversely affects a person's cellular immunity, we compared several immunological parameters among 100 transsexual male prostitutes and 40 heterosexual male controls, and also among different durations of prostitution. The mean ratios of CD-4 (helper/inducer) lymphocytes to CD-8 (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes and the delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity (DTH) scores were significantly lower in transsexuals than they were in heterosexual controls; these parameters also showed a decreasing trend with increasing duration of prostitution... We postulate that in these subjects cellular immunity is progressively reduced, probably through repeated and prolonged antigenic challenge via receptive anal intercourse. The impairment in cellular immunity is associated with the duration of prostitution, independent of the man's age."|
| ||Aust N Z J Med 1986 Dec;16(6):757-760||1986|
|Effect of boar seminal immunosuppressive component on humoral immune response in mice.|| ||Veselsky L, Dostal J, Zelezna B.
| ||"The effect of seminal immunosuppressive component (ISF) on the primary and secondary antibody response, induced by soluble and/or corpuscular antigens, was evaluated in the sera obtained at different intervals before and after immunizations. The ability of the seminal immunosuppressive component to suppress the primary and secondary antibody response was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) in the sera of mice treated in vivo with the immunosuppressor before and after immunization with antigens. Intravenous and rectal deposition of ISF led to a suppression of the primary and secondary antibody response to soluble and corpuscular antigens. The results indicated that the preexposure is needed for maximal immunosuppression of the primary antibody production. The treatment with ISF led to a prolonged immunosuppression but not to permanent tolerance to the challenging antigen. The in vivo deposition of semen may compromise some aspects of the immune system and may be an important factor in the development of viral and bacterial infections."|
| ||Am J Reprod Immunol 1997 Aug;38(2):106-113||1997|
|Immunosuppressive effect induced by intraperitoneal and rectal administration of boar seminal immunosuppressive factor.|| ||Dostal J, Veselsky L, Drahorad J, Jonakova V.
| ||"Intraperitoneal or rectal administration of the immunosuppressive component led to a decrease in the white cell concentration in blood of treated mice. These findings indicate that rectal deposition of semen may compromise some aspects of the immune system and may be an important cofactor in the development of viral or bacterial infections among homosexual men."|
| ||Biol Reprod 1995 Jun;52(6):1209-1214||1995|
|Virologic and serologic markers of rapid progression to AIDS after HIV-1 seroconversion.|| ||Farzadegan H, Henrard DR, Kleeberger CA, Schrager L, Kirby AJ, Saah AJ, Rinaldo CR Jr, O'Gorman M, Detels R, Taylor E, Phair JP, Margolick JB.
| ||"The association between early virologic and immunologic events after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and progression of HIV-1 infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was studied among 59 homosexual men with documented time of seroconversion. Epidemiologic factors, such as number of lifetime sexual partners, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and other factors, also were studied. All 17 seroconverters in the cohort who developed AIDS within 3 years (rapid progressors = RPs) were compared with 42 men without AIDS for at least 6 years seroconversion (nonrapid progressors = non-RPs)... Up to seroconversion, the RPs had a significantly higher number of lifetime sexual partners than non-RPs (503 versus 171, respectively)..."|
| ||J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996 Dec 15;13(5):448-55||1996|
|Rectal infusion of semen results in transient elevation of blood prostaglandins.|| ||Alexander NJ, Tarter TH, Fulgham DL, Ducsay CA, Novy MJ.
| ||Repeated semen deposition in the gut may be linked to the development of viral infections in homosexual men. Other investigators have suggested that rectal insemination may diminish immune responsiveness. We approximated conditions of human insemination by infusing 2 ml of pooled human seminal plasma (SP) into the rectum and/or vagina of rhesus monkeys. This resulted in increased blood plasma concentrations of the bicycloderivative of prostaglandin E (PGEM-II) which reached peak concentrations 2 h after rectal SP instillation in seven of eight test monkeys, but not the controls. The rate of PGE2 diffusion appeared to occur more rapidly across vaginal than rectal mucosa. Suppression of peripheral cellular immune functions was not demonstrated after the single exposure of this study, although persistent and repeat exposures could lead to local or generalized suppression of host defense mechanisms. Absorption of PGE's from the gut may be a cofactor in the development of sexually transmitted viral diseases.|
| ||Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol 1987 Oct;15(2):47-51||1987|