Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsStressCortisol mediatedGeneral
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in non-AIDS patients with advanced HIV infection.
 Azar ST, Melby JC
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  Am J Med Sci May 1993, 305(5):321-51993
Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during HIV infection.
 Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N et al.
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  J Acquired Imm Def Syn, 1992, 5: 841-8461992
Endocrine function in the HIV wasting syndrome.
 Coodley GO, Loveless MO, Nelson HD et al.
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  J Acquired Imm Def Syn, 1994, 7: 46-511994
Stimulus of the hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for activation of the immune-neuroendocrine system
 Lewi DS, Kater CE, Moreira AC
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  Rev Assoc Med Bras, 1995 march-april, 41(2):109-181995
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
 Lortholary O, Christeff N, Casassus P, Thobie N, Veyssier P, Trogoff B, Torri O, Brauner M, Nunez EA, Guillevin L
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996 feb, 81(2):791-61996
Adrenocortical function in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
 Membreno L, Irony I, Dere W, Klein R, Biglieri EG, Cobb E
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1987 sept, 65(3):482-71987
Glucocorticoids and interferon-alpha in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
 Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Clerici M
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996 july, 81(7):2601-61996
Adrenal function in HIV infected patients.
 Verges B, Chavanet P, Desgres J, Vaillant G, Waldner A, Brun JM, Putelat R
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  Acta Endocrinol, 1989 nov, 121(5):633-7.1989
Abnormal free fatty acids and cortisol concentrations in the serum of AIDS patients.
 Christeff N, Michon C, Goertz G et al.
  People diagnosed HIV positive have chronically elevated cortisol levels, suggesting that the low CD4 T-cells in people diagnosed with AIDS could be at least partly caused by elevated cortisol. These people also have been found to have reduced cortisol responses when artificially stimulated, which indicates the presence of chronic stress as well as chronically overactive cortisol production.
  Eur J Can Clin Oncol; 1988; 24(7): 1179-1183.1988
Glucocorticoids and the immune function in the human immunodeficiency virus infection: a study in hypercortisolemic and cortisol-resistant patients.
 Norbiato G, Bevilacqua M, Vago T, Taddei A, Clerici
  Norbiato et al. compared patients with AIDS with healthy, HIV negative controls. They placed the AIDS patients into two groups, those with normal cortisol receptor affinity (AIDS-C) and those with low cortisol receptor affinity (AIDS-GR), and compared both these groups to HIV-negative controls. When comparing urinary free 24 hour cortisol levels, they found that patients with AIDS-GR had 451 micrograms/24hr, while control subjects had only 79 micrograms/24hr. People with AIDS excreted nearly six times as much cortisol as normal controls. AIDS-C patients had levels of 293 micrograms/24hr, 3.7 times higher than normal. Plasma cortisol levels were also increased, with levels nearly three times as high in AIDS-GR patients as in normal controls. Their comments on their findings are revealing : "In HIV disease, the normal interaction between hypothalamic/pituitary axis is altered, thus producing an oversecretion of cortisol, resulting in immune suppression. In most patients, this trend continues throughout the course of the disease."
  J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 1997, Oct; 82(10): 3260-3.1997
Hypercortisolism associated with social subordinance or social isolation among wild baboons.
 Sapolsky RM, Alberts SC, Altmann J
  This study looked at the effects of social isolation and social subordination on cortisol levels in twelve wild baboons. They found basal cortisol levels four times as high in the six more isolated baboons, when compared with the six more socially connected baboons : "Hypersecretion of glucocordicoids (excess cortisol production) can have deleterious effects on immune defenses, metabolism, reproductive physiology, tissue repair, and neurological status... In a previous study with a wild population of baboons, we observed that among dominant males, those with the lowest rates of grooming with females and social interactions with infants had markedly elevated cortisol levels... studies with rodents and captive primates demonstrate the power of social proximity or affiliation to blunt the cortisol response to various stressors, suggesting that these baboons are hypercortisolemic because they lack the stress-reducing advantages of social affiliation... "
  Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997, Dec, 54; 1137-1143.1997
Circadian variations in plasma levels of hypophyseal, adrenocortical and testicular hormones in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
 Villette JM, Bourin P, Doinel C, Mansour I, Fiet J, Boudou P, Dreux C, Roue R, Debord M, Levi F
  Alterations in the circadian time structure of the secretion of several hormones were investigated in 13 male patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Seven were asymptomatic..., and 6 had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (CDC IV). Ten healthy males volunteered as controls. Plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S), cortisol, testosterone, ACTH, and beta-endorphin were determined by RIA in blood samples obtained every 4 h from 0830-0830 h the next morning... Compared with the control subjects, mesors (24-h adjusted means) were significantly higher for cortisol and lower for DHEA, DHEA-S, and ACTH (P less than 0.001 for all four hormones) in all HIV-infected patients... Analysis of the circadian rhythms of plasma hormone levels clearly indicated an altered adrenal hormonal state in HIV-infected male patients, even during the asymptomatic period of the infection. For instance, plasma cortisol at 0430 h was more than twice as high in HIV-infected patients as it was in time-qualified controls... We speculate that the primary hormonal defect in HIV-infected patients is increased cortisol secretion resulting from circadian-varying stimulation of the adrenal cortex by a factor other than pituitary ACTH...
  Immunol Today 1994 Dec;15(12):575-811994