Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsStressOxidative stressGeneral
Selective compartmental dominance: an explanation for a non-infectious, multifactorial etiology for AIDS.
 Shallenberger F
  The author presents a multifactorial model of AIDS in which the immune system becomes overbalanced towards antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) when it is chronically stressed. He cites evidence to show that HIV is necessary to create this imbalance. When AMI becomes dominant, the cytokines released by this arm of the immune system (interleukins 4 and 10) naturally suppress the other arm, called cell-mediated immunity (CMI). CMI uses CD4+ cells in abundance, and when it is suppressed the CD4 count will drop. If the AMI dominance is maintained long enough it can become pathological and be very difficult to reverse, eventually leading to failure of both AMI and CMI. His arguments are supported by the fact that people who are diagnosed HIV-positive invariably have high levels of antibodies, even when their CD4 counts have dropped significantly. Shallenberger carefully documents that evidence of this phenomenon occurs in all the risk groups for HIV, whether or not they are HIV positive, including hemophiliacs, male homosexuals, IVDUs, and transfusion recipients.
  Medical Hypotheses, 1998, 50; 67-801998
Oxidative stress and apoptosis in HIV infection: a role for plant-derived metabolites with synergistic antioxidant activity.
 Greenspan HC, Aruoma OI
  The cascade of events resulting from 'oxidative stress' is markedly similar to that which can initiate apoptosis, a possible mechanism of immune-cell loss in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. Since primary and secondary metabolites found in plants can act as synergistic antioxidants, and can prevent oxidation-induced cell death, Howard Greenspan and Okezie Aruoma ask whether or not these compounds can be useful in inhibiting viral activation and the death of immune cells in HIV/AIDS.
  Immunol Today 1994 May;15(5):209-131994
No title
 No author
  Oxidative damage is caused by free radicals–unstable and potentially damaging cells in the body linked to premature aging, illness, and disease. HIV patients are often under chronic oxidative stress (Repetto M, Reides C, Gomez Carretero ML, Costa M, Griemberg G, Llesuy S. Clin Chim Acta 1996;255(2):107-117). This heightened free radical activity is associated with the progressive development of AIDS and, specifically, the viral replication, inflammatory response, immune dysfunction, weight loss, and increased sensitivity to drug toxicities that attend the disease (Pace GW, Leaf CD. The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;19(4):523-528).
  http://www.gsdl.com/assessments/finddisease/aids/oxidative_stress.html1
NUTRITIONAL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF AIDS (Southern African Development Community (SADC) Health Meeting, Johannesburg, South Africa, November 28 and 29, 2002)
 Giraldo Roberto
  Free radicals are produced throughout the regular immune system network. Despite the beneficial effects of the inflammation responses, they can also aggravate existing tissue damage by releasing free radicals. When uncontrolled, initiated by an abnormal stimulus, or occurring for prolonged periods of time, inflammation may become a disease process (Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 1993; 23: 21-48, Slater TF. Free radicals: formation, detection, reactivity, and citoxicity. In: Lachman PJ, Peters SK, Rosen FS, Walport MJ. Clinical aspects of immunology. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993: 377-393, Reid L. Oxidative stress and antioxidants. A nutritional perspective. Continuum (London) 1998; 5(3): 52-54). It is critical for optimal immune responses that there be a balance between free radical generation and antioxidant protection.
  http://www.robertogiraldo.com/eng/papers/RoleOfNutrition.html2002
The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection.
 Favier A.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 77-224. Papers presented at the conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection”, Les Deux Alpes, France, January 1993.1994
Role of free radicals in immunodeficiency
 Giraldo Roberto
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Aids and Stressors. Medellín: Impresos Begón; 1997: 72-75.1997
Oxidative protein damage and degradation in lymphocytes from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
 Piedimonte G, Guetard D, Magnani M, Corsi D, Picerno I, Spataro P, et al.
  "In AIDS pathogenesis, oxidative stress is proposed as a metabolic alteration that favours disease progression by inducing both viral replication and apoptotic death.  Indeed, evidence that oxidative stress induces, while antioxidants inhibit, HIV replication and apoptosis suggests the use of these molecules as an antiretroviral therapy to reduce cell death in AIDS patients"7
  J Infect Dis 1997;176(3):655-64.1997
Oxidative stress, HIV and AIDS.
 Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al.
  No abstract / Pubmed
  Res Immunol 1992; 143: 145-148.1992
Reappraisal of AIDS – Is the oxidation induced by the risk factor the primary cause?
 Papadopulos-Eleopulos E.
  "The emergence of AIDS as a recognizable disease, its epidemiology, the clinical and laboratory data and the way in which they have been interpreted to deduce the currently acceptable hypothesis of its aetiology and mechanism of transmission are critically examined. There is no compelling reason for preferring the viral hypothesis of AIDS to one based on the activity of oxidizing agents. In fact, the latter is to be preferred, since unlike the viral hypothesis it leads to possible methods of prevention and treatment using currently available therapeutic substances."
  Medical Hypothesis 1988; 25: 151-162.1988
Looking back on the oxidative stress theory of AIDS.
 Papadopulos-Eleopulos E.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Continuum ( London ) 1998/1999; 5(5): 30-35.1998
Molecular mechanisms of virus activation by free radicals. Collection of 5 articles presented at a conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection” Les Deux Alpes, France, January 1993. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 79-132.
 Piette et al.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 77-224. Papers presented at the conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection”, Les Deux Alpes, France, January 1993.1994
Progressive increase of oxidative stress in advanced human immunodeficiency.
 Passi S.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Continuum (London) 1998; 5(4): 20-26.1998
The role of oxidative stress in disease progression in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus.
 Salvain B, Mark AW.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  J Leukocyte Biol 1992; 52: 111.1992
Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with HIV.
 Favier A et al.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 165-180.1994
Oxidative imbalance in HIV infected patients.
 Fuchs J et al.
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Med Hypothesis 1991; 36: 60-64.1991
Oxygen radical release by neutrophils of HIV-infected patients.
 Jarstrand C, Akerlund B. .
  Oxidizing stress / free radicals as requisite for developing the clinical manifestations of AIDS
  Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 141-1461994