|Co-factors||Stress||Psychological stress||Progression to AIDS|
|Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support.|| ||Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al.
| ||"Faster progression to AIDS was associated with more cumulative stressful life events (p<0.002), more cumulative depressive symptoms (p<0.008), and less cumulative social support (p<0.0002). ... At 5.5 years, the probability of getting AIDS was about two to three times as high on those above the median on stress or below the median on social support."|
| ||Psychosomatic Medicine, 1999, 61; 397-406||1999|
|Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity.|| ||Cole SW, Kemeny ME, Taylor SE, Visscher BR.
| ||"This study examined the incidence of infectious and neoplastic diseases among 222 HIV-seronegative gay men who participated in the Natural History of AIDS Psychosocial Study. Those who concealed the expression of their homosexual identity experienced a significantly higher incidence of cancer (odds ratio = 3.18) and several infectious diseases (pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, and tuberculosis; odds ratio = 2.91) over a 5-year follow-up period. These effects could not be attributed to differences in age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, repressive coping style, health-relevant behavioral patterns (e.g., drug use, exercise), anxiety, depression, or reporting biases (e.g., negative affectivity, social desirability). Results are interpreted in the context of previous data linking concealed homosexual identity to other physical health outcomes (e.g., HIV progression and psychosomatic symptomatology) and theories linking psychological inhibition to physical illness."|
| ||Health Psychol 1996 Jul;15(4):243-51||1996|