Dissident AIDS Database

Co-factorsStressPsychological stressSocial support
Social relationships and health
 House et al.
  Socially isolated people, when compared to people with high levels of social support, have been found to have between double and triple the death rates from all causes.
  Science, 1988, 241:540-545.1988
Love and Survival: the Scientific Basis for the Healing Power of Intimacy
 Ornish D
  Socially isolated people, when compared to people with high levels of social support, have been found to have between double and triple the death rates from all causes.
  Harper Collins, 1997, New York1997
Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine year follow up study of alameda county residents.
 Berkman L & Syme S
  Cancer patients with high levels of social support have as much as double the survival rates as those with low levels of social support
  Am J Epidemiol, 1979, 109(2): 186-2031979
Multidiscipline studies of tuberculosis.
 Holmes TH
  Socially isolated people were found to have much higher rates of tuberculosis, even when they lived in wealthy neighborhoods.
  P Sparer, Ed: Personality, Stress, and Tuberculosis. New York: International Universities Press.1956
Psychosocial correlates of cancer survival: a subsequent report 3 to 8 years after cancer diagnosis.
 Cassileth BR, Walsh WP, Lusk EJ
  The effects of social support on survival of cancer has been examined by many researchers, as well : significant increased survival was observed in people with higher levels of social support.
  J Clin Oncol; 1988, 6(11): 1753-1759.1988
Depressed mood and other variables related to bone marrow transplantation survival in acute leukemia.
 Colon EA, Callies AL, Popkin MK, McGlave PB
  Cancer patients with high levels of social support have as much as double the survival rates as those with low levels of social support
  Psychosomatics, 1991, 32(4): 420-425.1991
Social relations, social support and survival among patients with cancer.
 Eli K, Nishimoto R, Mediansky L, Mantell J, Hamovitch M
  The effects of social support on survival of cancer has been examined by many researchers, as well : significant increased survival was observed in people with higher levels of social support.
  J Psychosom Research; 1992; 36: 531-541.1992
Social support and survival among women with breast cancer.
 Maunsell E, Brisson J, Deschenes L
  The effects of social support on survival of cancer has been examined by many researchers, as well : significant increased survival was observed in people with higher levels of social support.
  Cancer; 1995; 76(4): 631-7.1995
Social connections and risk for cancer: prospective evidence from the Alameda County study.
 Reynolds P, Kaplan G
  The effects of social support on survival of cancer has been examined by many researchers, as well : significant increased survival was observed in people with higher levels of social support.
  Beh Med; 1990; 16: 101-110.1990
The relationship between social ties and survival among black and white breast cancer patients.
 Reynolds P, Boyd P, Blacklow R
  Cancer patients with high levels of social support have as much as double the survival rates as those with low levels of social support
  Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers Prevention; 1994; 3(3): 253-259.1994
Effects of social relationships on survival for women with breast cancer.
 Waxler-Morrison N, Hislop TG, Mears B, Kan L
  The effects of social support on survival of cancer has been examined by many researchers, as well : significant increased survival was observed in people with higher levels of social support.
  Soc Sci Med; 1991; 33(2): 177-183.1991
Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.
 Spiegel D, Kraemer H, Bloom J, Gottheil E
  Women with late stage breast cancer randomized to receive social support group interventions lived nearly twice as long as the control group
  Lancet; 1989; 2: 888-91.1989
Malignant melanoma: effects of an early structured psychiatric intervention on recurrence and survival six years later.
 Fawzy FI, Fawzy NW, Hyun CS, Elashoff R, Guthrie D, Fahey JL, et al
  Only three of 34 melanoma patients randomized to receive group education and support intereventions died after seven years compared to ten of 34 who did not. There was also a trend for decreased recurrence, with seven recurrences in the group receiving group interevention compared to thirteen in the control group.
  Arch Gen Psychiatry; 1993; 50: 681-9.1993
Neuropsychiatric assessment of orphans in one Romanian orphanage for "unsalvageables".
 Rosenberg DR, Pajer K, Rancurello M et al.
  "During September of 1991 we conducted a neuropsychiatric assessment of the entire population of one of these orphanages. One hundred and seventy patients resided in this institution, and all had been declared 'irrecuperable'. The orphanage was severely understaffed... This understaffing resulted in such minimal child-staff interaction that 75% of the children did not know their own name or age... 85% of the children had no family contact whatsoever." The researchers found that fully 94% of the children had developmental language and speech disorders, 40% were mentally retarded, 26% had muscular atrophy, 22% were "completely immobile", 14% suffered from delirium, 12% had epilepsy, 10% had autism, and 4% had psychosis (because these children received adequate food, clothing, shelter, and medical care when sick, the researchers concluded that these children suffered and died because of lack of physical and emotional contacts during their infancy)
  JAMA; 1992; 268(24); 3489-3490.1992
Psychological and neuroendocrinological sequelae of early social deprivation in institutionalized children in Romania.
 Carlson M & Earls F
  "The situation of infants and children living in state-operated residential institutions in Romania provides a setting in which the consequences of severe social deprivation can be examined. These children experience a form of social care in which their medical and nutritional needs are met, but but their social and psychological needs are not... Most of the children... had experienced severe tactile/social deprivation due to the high child:caretaker ratios and custodial rearing practices... we discovered an early enrichment program..., organized by an American psychologist, Joseph Sparling. In this program, two groups of 2-9 month old infants were randomly assigned to either a social/educational enrichment program with child:caretaker ratio of 4:1 or left in standard depriving conditions with a child:caretaker ratio of 20:1... In the 9 month period necessary to obtain funding, this intervention program lost its support. Thus, after 13 months of enrichment, children in the intervention group were once again living in the depriving conditions. The children in the intervention group had shown significantly accelerated physical growth and mental/motor development compared to the control group during the enrichment period, but 6 months after the program ended they were no longer superior to the control children... At this same time, we measured cortisol levels using the non-invasive method of saliva sampling to determine its level, diurnal variation, and its reactivity to a stressful event... Significant correlations were found between levels of cortisol and physical growth as well as mental and motor performance (Bayley Scale)."
  NY Acad of Sciences; 1997; 807; 419-428.1997