Dissident AIDS Database

EpidemiologyNon sexual transmissionFactor VIII / hemophiliaInfectivity of factor VIII
Fact sheet on HIV transmission
 US Centers for Disease Control & Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
  "In order to obtain data on the survival of HIV, laboratory studies have required the use of artificially high concentrations of laboratory grown virus...the amount of virus studied is not found in human specimens or anyplace else in nature,...it does not spread or maintain infectiousness outside its host. Although these unnatural concentrations of HIV can be kept alive under precisely controlled and limited laboratory conditions, CDC studies have shown that drying of even these high concentrations of HIV reduces the number of infectious viruses by 90 to 99 percent within several hours. Since the HIV concentrations used in laboratory studies are much higher than those actually found in blood or other body specimens, drying of HIV-infected human blood or other body fluids reduces the theoretical risk of environmental transmission to that which has been observed-essentially zero".
  CDC. January, (1994).1994
What makes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistant to dry heat inactivation.
 Damjanovic, V.
  "Freeze-drying parameters commonly employed under commercial conditions for the preservation of protein solutions are not favourable for survival of viral suspensions". Commenting on some colleagues' findings Damjanovic wrote: it is "surprising that HIV survived procedures used in the preparation of Factor VIII before lyophilization";
  J. Hosp. Infect. 1987. 10:209-210.1987
Isolation of HIV-1 from plasma of infected individuals: an analysis of experimental conditions affecting successful virus propogation.
 Dewar, R. L., Sarmiento, M. D., Lawton, E. S., Clark, H. M., Kennedy, P. E., Shah, A., Baseler, M., Metcalf, J. A., Lance, H. C. & Salzman, N. P.,
  Researchers from the Laboratory of Molecular Retrovirology, Georgetown University, took two blood samples from each of ten HIV seropositive patients: "One sample from each individual was processed immediately after phlebotomy to obtain plasma, and aliquots of this plasma were used at once to infect PHA-stimulated donor PBMCs as described. A second set of aliquots of this "immediately processed" plasma was frozen at -70=F8C for 3 h, and then thawed and used to infect the same donor cells. Five of the ten immediately processed/immediately used plasma samples (50%) were positive for HIV-1 using the p24 antigen detection method, while all of the corresponding frozen aliquots were negative (0%). The second blood sample from each of the 10 patients was kept at room temperature for 3 h prior to plasma separation. Again, after processing, one aliquot was used for the infections while another was frozen and thawed before use. In this experiment, only one of the ten samples (10%) was culture positive after the 3 h delay and also after the one cycle of freezing and thawing". Thus, although these workers determined the optimum conditions for "HIV isolation" prior to conducting the above experiments, they could "isolate" (detect p24 in culture) HIV from only 10% of HIV+ plasmas which were left at room temperature for three hours and from 1 of 20 (5%) HIV+ plasmas which had been frozen for three hours.
  J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 1992. 5:822-828.1992
Characterization of High-Risk HIV-1 Seronegative Hemophiliacs.
 Salkowitz JR et al.
  “Surprisingly sera/plasmas obtained from high-risk HIV-1 seropositive hemophiliacs prior to seroconversion more often contained alloreactive antibodies than date-matched sera/plasmas obtained from HRSN [high-risk, HIV-negative] hemophiliacs. Thus alloreactivity may predispose to acquisition of HIV-1 infection after parenteral exposure [ignoring the possibility that it is exposure to larger quantities of clotting factor that both generates the alloreactive antibodies and ‘HIV’ antibodies as well as being a risk factor for AIDS]”
  Clin Immunol. 2001 Feb;98(2):200-211.2001
Immune responses in HIVexposed seronegatives: have they repelled the virus?
 Rowland-Jones SL, McMichael A.
  “A significant number of those [hemophiliacs] receiving batches [of Factor VIII clotting compound] known to be infected [with HIV] did not seroconvert [become HIV-positive]”
  Curr Opin Immunol. 1995;7:448-455.1995
Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-III (HTLV-III) Infection in Seronegative Hemophiliacs after Transfusion of Factor VIII.
 Ludlam CA et al.
  "Between April and October, 1984, anti-HTLV-III [HIV antibodies] developed in 16 patients with hemophilia A...[of whom] all but one had received a common batch [of clotting] factor VIII...a further eighteen patients received the implicated batch A...[but] have been negative for [HIV antibodies]...The 15 patients who seroconverted used significantly more vials of batch A and also had a higher annual factor VIII consumption than the eighteen patients who did not seroconvert...Our finding in this study that T-helper-cell numbers and the helper/suppressor ratio did not change after infection supports our previous conclusion that the abnormal T-lymphocyte subsets [CD4/CD8 cells] are a result of the intravenous infusion of factor VII concentrates per se, not [HIV] infection”
  Lancet. 1985 Aug 3;2(8449):233-236.1985
Thermal Inactivation of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus, Human T Lymphotropic Virus-III/Lymphadenopathy-associated Virus, with Special Reference to Antihemophilic Factor.
 McDougal JS et al.
  “No one has reported the isolation of HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] from antihemophilic factor using macroculture isolation techniques despite compelling evidence that this material transmits AIDS”
  J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug;76(2):875-877.1985
 Blattner, W. A.
  HIV cannot be transmitted through "...products prepared from blood, such as albumin, plasma, protein fractions, or hepatitis B vaccine"
  Viral infections of humans, 3rd Edition, edited by A. S. Evans, Plenum Medical Book Company, New York. 1989. pp. 545-5921989
Inactivation by wet and dry heat of AIDS-associated retroviruses during factor VIII purification from plasma.
 Levy, J. A., Mitra, G. A., Wong, M. F. & Mozen, M. M.,
  Levy et al concluded "our results indicate that lipid-enveloped retroviruses (both mouse and human) if present in sufficient amount in plasma can be found in infectious form in FVIII lyophilised products...heating lyophilised FVIII for 72 hr at 68=F8C or the liquid product for 10 hr at 60=F8C will eliminate infectious ARV [HIV] if it is not present in the plasma at more than 106 infectious particles/ml.". However: 2. Levy et al performed their experiments by "infecting" plasma with 105IP/ml, while factor VIII which is administered to haemophiliacs is made from plasma pooled from thousands of individuals most of whom are not infected. As the plasma from which factor VIII is prepared contains very few or no particles per ml of plasma, and as the technique employed to prepare factor VIII reduced by a thousand fold (even before heat treatment) the concentration of any infectious particles present in this study, one would have to conclude that factor VIII prepared before 1985 could not contain sufficient HIV particles to be a "meaningful source of HIV transmission";
  Lancet I:1456-1457. 1985.1985
 Papadopulos-Eleopulos Eleni , Valendar F.Turner, John M. Papadimitriou & David Causer
  "It is accepted by all HIV researchers that heating factor VIII preparations destroys HIV. Yet AIDS has been diagnosed in haemophiliacs who exclusively received heat treated factor VIII (CDC, 1987)"
  Genetica 95: 25-50, 19961996
 Papadopulos-Eleopulos Eleni , Valendar F.Turner, John M. Papadimitriou & David Causer
  "One must also consider the possibility that factor VIII is contaminated with HIV-infected cells. Even if the plasma from which the factor VIII is made contains cells, since preparation of factor VIII entails (a) freezing and thawing which lyses cells; (b) sterilisation by filtration which excludes cells and the majority, if not all, of cellular fragments from the filtrate; it is most unlikely that factor VIII would be contaminated with cells. Furthermore, even if the filtrate were to contain some cellular fragments, they could not be a source of HIV because the synthesis and assembly of type C and type D particles, and Lentiviruses, require the presence of an intact cell. In conclusion, the lack of evidence of HIV particles in plasma, ..., the physical processes involved in processing plasma into factor VIII even before heating was introduced, make it impossible for factor VIII to be contaminated with infectious retroviruses. It is not surprising therefore that, to date, nobody has reported HIV particles in factor VIII preparations."
  Genetica 95: 25-50, 19951995