Dissident AIDS Database

EpidemiologySexual transmissionHeterosexual intercourseDeveloped countries
Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results from a Ten-year Study.
 Padian, N.S., Shiboski, S.C., Glass, S.O. & Vittinghoff, E.
  The results from their long (ten years) prospective study of heterosexual couples of whom only one partner of either sex was antibody positive : "A total of 82 infected women and their male partners and 360 infected men and their female partners were enrolled. Over 90% of the couples were monogamous for the year prior to entry into the study. Male-to-female transmission was approximately eight times more efficient than female-to-male transmission and male-to-female per contact infectivity was estimated to be 0.0009 (95% CI 0.0005-0.001)... No transmission occurred among the 25% of couples who did not use their condoms consistently, nor among the 47 couples who intermittently practiced unsafe sex during the entire duration of follow-up. This evidence argues for low infectivity in the absence of either needle sharing and/or other cofactors". Fully 75% of the couples were not using condoms at entry to the study... In the "Prospective results", where the authors attempted to document actual sexual transmission of antibodies to HIV, they state: "We followed 175 HIV-discordant couples over time, for a total of approximately 282 couple-years of follow-up (table 3)... We observed no seroconversion after entry into the study." Then, the "1 in 1000" sexual contact risk was not based in any of the 175 couples, ... but was rather based entirely on finding a small minority of couples in which both partners were already HIV positive at the outset of the study, and assuming that they must have transmitted it from one to another through sexual intercourse (68 females and 2 males from the "retrospective...cross-sectional" part of their study).
  Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:350-71997
Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
 Padian et al.
  "The total number of exposures to the index case (sexual contacts with ejaculation) and the specific practice of anal intercourse, also with the infected partner, were associated with transmission". This 1987 paper did not study the transmission of HIV but studied women who turned out to have antibodies to HIV, assuming they became positive through sex. Of the 75 women who were HIV-negative when the study began, 30 were retested 6 months after entry and "none had seroconverted". Again, no evidence that HIV or antibodies to HIV are sexually transmitted. Nevertheless, Padian et al. declare that, "Male-to- female sexual transmission of the AIDS virus was clearly documented in this study." [comment from David rasnick : I have the paper in front of me and I can't find where they documented (clearly or otherwise) the sexual transmission of the "AIDS virus"].
  JAMA 258 (6), 788-790 (1987)1987
The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS – A Nine-Year Retrospective of Fear and (Mostly) Loathing
 Fumento Michael
  "Thus while other health departments were reporting female-to-male transmissions left and right (and do so to this day) simply because whenever a man said he got HIV from sex with a woman they took his word for it, New York was screening these people out with careful interviews. Later it scaled back and then essentially ceased the interviewing process, inevitably leading to New York male "heterosexual transmission" cases going through the roof. "I was appalled," said Sonnabend, who had worked for the Department of Health in the 1970s. "A number that was about 18 suddenly became 400 or 500, just because they stopped interviewing."
  Today, it's reported in Britain that hiv is on the rise but that "homosexual and bisexual men remain the largest group. Most of the heterosexual infections were acquired abroad"
  Daily Telegraph, 25 Jan 20012001
No title
 No author
  "Performers of porn movies who've died of AIDS. The number is not well over 60 but here's the rub: only one female made the list --and more, even her cause of death by AIDS isn't documented…"
The Social Construction of Knowledge on HIV and AIDS: With a Case Study on the History and Practices of AIDS Surveillance Activities in San Francisco
 Cochrane Michelle
  Cochrane's thesis juxtaposed the central tenets of AIDS orthodoxy against the material record of San Francisco AIDS patients' charts and found that public health officials persistently over-estimated the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS through sexual activity, "while simultaneously under-estimating the proportion of the HIV/AIDS caseload that were attributable to intravenous drug use and/or socio-economic factors which condition access to healthcare and prevention services." Cochrane showed that health officials conspicuously failed to investigate all risk factors for immunological dysfunction among heterosexual adult females. In their surveillance studies, it was sufficient for such a woman "merely to claim that the source of her infection was sex with an IV drug user or another man at risk for HIV/AIDS...A percentage of the 187 [heterosexual] female AIDS cases [out of 25,221 cumulative cases in San Francisco] attributed to sexual transmission would, with proper investigation, be attributable to IV drug use. Epidemiological research in the United States and Europe has never proven that a female has sexually transmitted HIV to a man. [Because] heterosexual transmission of HIV from a male to a female happens with difficulty and very infrequently...all AIDS surveillance statistics on female AIDS cases have been gathered without rigorous scrutiny of the woman's risk for disease and with a bias towards including as many women as possible."
  Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, April 1997, p. 253.1997
Epidemiology and evolution of heterosexually acquired AIDS--United States.
 Chamberland, M. Conley, L. & Dondero, T.
  "AIDS patients reported to the CDC are classified as HT [heterosexual] if they (1) report heterosexual contact with a person with HIV infection or at increased risk for HIV infection (US-born) or (2) were born in countries where HT is a major route of transmission (non-US born)".
  Abstracts IVth International Conference on AIDS, 1988, No 4017 p264: Stockholm.1988
AIDS IN AFRICA – THE WAY FORWARD, Retrospect from a European point of view
 Fiala Chistian
  "These, incidentally, have hardly raised condom use in Germany at all. The annual usage in 1980 was two condoms per inhabitant; in 1995 it was 2.3" : it is not because of safe sex campaigns that hiv did not spread in the general population => hiv is not easily sexually transmitted (Deutsche Latex Forschung, Kondom-Absatz in Deutschland, Düsseldorf, Statistisches Jahrbuch 1996, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden).
Man-to-woman sexual transmission of HIV: longitudinal study of 343 steady partners of infected men.
 Saracco A, Musicco M, Nicolosi A, Angarano G, Arici C, Gavazzeni G, Costigliola P, Gafa S, Gervasoni C, Luzzati R, et al.
  To study incidence and risk factors of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection, we followed a cohort of 343 seronegative women, stable, monogamous partners of infected men whose only risk of acquiring HIV was sexual exposure to the infected partner. Nineteen seroconversions occurred in 529.6 person years (py) of observation, yielding an incidence rate of 3.6 per 100 py. The incidence rate was 7.2 per 100 py among women who did not always use or never used condoms and 1.1 among those who always used them [relative risk (RR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-21.9]... The annual seroconversion rate was 5.7% and 9.7%, respectively, in [the initially seronegative female partner of an HIV-positive man] never or not always using condoms and was reduced to 1.1% in those who always used this device"
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993 May;6(5):497-5021993
Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission from heterosexual adults with transfusion-associated infections.
 Peterman TA et al.
  "although most husbands and wives remained uninfected despite repeated sexual contact without protection, some acquired infection after only a few contacts... Antibody [to HIV] was found in 2 of 25 husbands [of HIV-positive women] and 10 of 55 wives [of HIV-positive men]... Eleven wives [of HIV-positive men] remained uninfected after more than 200 sexual contacts with their infected spouse... Condoms were rarely used”
  JAMA. 1988 Jan 1;259(1):55-8.1988
The transmission of AIDS: the case of the infected cell.
 Levy JA.
  “In one study, none of the husbands of four seropositive women were infected despite regular sexual contact for as long as three years. In another study involving 12 couples, no transmission from the infected woman to the male partner occurred after more than 100 sexual contacts. Thus, vaginal intercourse may carry a low risk to the insertive partner, as does anal intercourse.”
  JAMA. 1988;259(20):3037-8.1988
Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
 Holmberg SD et al.
  “of >1,600 investigated monogamous sex partners of [HIV]-infected persons in North America and Europe, only about 15% are infected with HIV…this may be an overestimate…since some partners of intravenous drug abusers may share needles with infected mates…90% of 777 infected hemophilic men have not transmitted HIV-1 to their monogamous sexual partners…24 women who had >100 unprotected genital episodes with their transfusion-infected husbands…remained uninfected”
  J Infect Dis. 1989 Jul;160(1):116-25.1989
Rethinking AIDS; The tragic cost of premature consensus'
 Root-Bernstein Robert
  "The number of American and European heterosexuals who have had sexual relations with a prostitute, who have no other admitted risk factors (such as drug abuse), and who have subsequently developed antibody to HIV can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Sex with a prostitute is not even listed as a risk category by the American CDC."
  The Free Press/Macmillan USA 19931993
Correlates of Nontransmission in US Women at High Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection through Sexual Exposure
 Skurnick JH et al.
  “The study cohort consisted of 17 women who remained uninfected, despite a history of heavy exposure to HIV through repeated, unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner, and 12 of their regular, male HIV-positive partners. Criteria for inclusion were longstanding sexual partnership up to the time of the male partner’s first positive HIV test and/or continued unprotected intercourse after the male partner was infected and no other identified risk for HIV infection for the women. The HIV-negative status of the women was determined by HIV-1 antibody status, qualitative plasma DNA polymerase chain reaction, and cocultivation. HIV antibody–positive status was confirmed by repeat ELISA and Western blot tests...”
  J Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 17;185.2002
Concordance of polymerase chain reaction with HIV antibody detection.
 Horsburgh CR et al
  “41 antibody-negative heterosexual partners of HIV-infected persons were also PCR-negative [i.e. after repeated exposure to HIV, these 41 people persistently remained negative by both antibody and PCR tests]”
  J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug;162:542-5.1990
Transmission of HIV to heterosexual partners of infected men and women
 Johnson, A.M., et al
  In common with a number of studies, no relationship was found between transmission probability and either length of relationship or estimated number of sexual contacts.
  Aids, 1989. 3(6): p. 367-72.1989
A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners.
 de Vincenzi I.
  "Worldwide, the predominant mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is heterosexual intercourse, but the risk of heterosexual transmission and the effectiveness of measures to prevent it are not well defined. We conducted a prospective study of HIV-negative subjects whose only risk of HIV infection was a stable heterosexual relationship with an HIV-infected partner. Every six months the subjects were interviewed, tested for HIV, and counseled about safe sexual practices. A total of 304 HIV-negative subjects (196 women and 108 men) were followed for an average of 20 months. During the study, 130 couples (42.8 percent) ended their sexual relationships, most often because of the HIV-infected partner's illness or death. Of the 256 couples who continued to have sexual relations for more than three months after enrollment in the study, only 124 (48.4 percent) used condoms consistently for vaginal and anal intercourse. Among these couples, none of the seronegative partners became infected with HIV, despite a total of about 15,000 episodes of intercourse. Among the 121 couples who used condoms inconsistently, the rate of seroconversion was 4.8 per 100 person-years (95 percent confidence interval, 2.5 to 8.4). Eleven couples refused to answer questions about condom use. The risk of transmission increased with advanced stages of HIV infection in the index partners (P < 0.02) and with genital infection in the HIV-negative partners (P < 0.04). Withdrawal to avoid ejaculation in the vagina had a protective effect in uninfected women (P < 0.02). Consistent use of condoms for heterosexual intercourse is highly effective in preventing the transmission of HIV. Among couples not using condoms regularly, the risk of HIV transmission varies widely."
  N Engl J Med. 1994;331:341-3461994
The Social Construction of Knowledge on HIV and AIDS: With a Case Study on the History and Practices of AIDS Surveillance Activities in San Francisco
 Cochrane Michelle
  San Francisco Department of Public Health, AIDS Surveillance Report, April 1998 : Over the past 17 years, a cumulative total of 243 heterosexual female AIDS cases have been reported out of 25,221 AIDS cases in San Francisco - less than 1%.
  Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, April 1997, p. 253.1997
Viral Sex-The Nature of AIDS
 Goudsmit, G.
  For heterosexual "HIV transmission" anywhere in the world, including Haiti, Africa, Thailand, "a homosexual or anal factor seems to be required".
  Oxford University Press, New York, 19971997
Sex in America: A Definitive Survey
 Michael Robert T. , Gagnon John H. , Laumann Edward and Kolata Gina
  Despite a decade of dire warnings that everyone was at risk, few Americans changed their sexual behavior yet AIDS cases did not spread. The authors show that "AIDS is, and is likely to remain, confined to exactly the risk groups where it began: gay men and intravenous drug users and their sexual partners."
  Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 19941994
Risk Factors for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Prevention Practices Among U.S. Heterosexual Adults: Changes from 1990 to 1992
 Catania Joseph A., et. al.
  From 1990 to 1992, the proportion of heterosexuals (aged 18-49) in high risk American cities who reported multiple sexual partners increased from 15% to 19%, while condom sales decreased by 1%, and 65% of respondents admitted they used condoms either sporadically or not all. Americans are not practicing safe sex and for this reason teen pregnancies and venereal diseases are on the rise. Yet "AIDS" cases continue to decrease sharply and even the fraction of Americans that is assumed to be HIV-antibody positive has declined from an estimated 1 million in 1985 to 700,000 in 1996.
  American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, #11 (November 1995), pp. 1492-99.1995
 Geshekter Charles
  By December 31, 1998 there had been a cumulative total of 16,236 cases of AIDS reported in Canada since 1981. In 1995 alone, 2009 adult cases of AIDS were reported. 1834 (91.2%) were males and 175 (8.8%) were females. In 1996, there were 1385 adult cases of AIDS reported in Canada, a one-year decrease of nearly 30%. Of the 1385 adult cases, 1220 were males (88%) and 165 were females (12%). In 1997, there were only 573 adult cases, 485 males (84.6%) and 88 were females (15.4%). In 1998, there were only 279 cases - 241 males (86.3%) and 38 females (13.7%), a total decrease of almost 90%. The actual number of adult female AIDS cases reported in Canada decreased by 50% from 1995 to 1997. In a country of nearly 30 million people, 15+ million of them women, there were only 88 female AIDS cases in 1997. Yet because the percentage of women with AIDS went from 8.2% in 1995 to 15.4% in 1997 even though the actual number decreased, the Annual HIV and AIDS in Canada Surveillance Report (April 1998) from the Bureau of HIV/AIDS and STD at the Canadian Laboratory Centre for Disease Control issued an alarmist warning that the risk of AIDS among Canadian women had dramatically increased by 25% to now comprise over 15% of all diagnosed cases, "the highest proportion observed since monitoring of the epidemic began," re-affirming how easy it is to misrepresent statistics to advance the central point that HIV/AIDS researchers must make.
Reconstruction and prediction of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among adults in the European Union and in the low prevalence countries of central and eastern Europe
 Downs A et al
  In the evaluation of anonymous, unlinked testing of umbilical-cord blood since 1993 the Robert Koch institute in Berlin has come to the following conclusion: "The results – HIV prevalence significantly under one per thousand among women giving birth – confirm the assumption of a low distribution of HIV in the general heterosexual population so far."
  AIDS, 1997; 11: 649-621997
 Robert Koch Institute, Berlin
  In Germany in the region of Berlin, Bavaria and Lower Saxony, all women giving birth are screened anonymously for HIV since some years. This gives us some information on the situation in the general heterosexual population. Here is the result of this huge mass-screening: “the result confirms the hypothesis of a minimal spread of HIV among the heterosexual population.” But many of the HIV positive woman came from Africa, leading to the following conclusion: “the low result of HIV positive women we found in Germany are therefore an over estimation of the real situation”.
Redefining the growth of the heterosexual HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chicago.
 Murphy JT, Mueller GE, Whitman S.
  A dramatic shift in the relative distribution of the five categories of heterosexual transmission for AIDS cases diagnosed in Chicago since 1991 prompted a mode-of-transmission validation study of what had become the most frequently reported heterosexual exposure: heterosexual relations with a person with AIDS (PWA) or documented HIV infection whose risk is not specified. For 395 cases with originally reported heterosexual exposure, one or more of three supplemental data sources were employed: medical records were reviewed, medical providers were interviewed, and patients or proxies (i.e., spouse, significant other, or family member) were interviewed when possible. When reported HIV exposure could not be validated or reclassified, the transmission category employed was "no identifiable risk" (NIR). Eighty-five percent (336 of 395 cases) were reclassified into different transmission categories. Most notably, 69% (272 of 395 cases) were reclassified into transmission categories that did not involve heterosexual contact, including NIR. The cumulative percentage of cases attributable to heterosexual contact declined from 8% to 5% as a result of reclassification. Additionally, reclassification resulted in a reduction of nearly 50% in the number of AIDS cases attributable to heterosexual contact diagnosed in 1993 and 1994. In Chicago, an emerging problem in AIDS surveillance appears to be the use of an ambiguous heterosexual exposure category as a default when other information is not readily available. This study has found the growth in AIDS cases among persons exposed to HIV through heterosexual contact to be much slower than previously perceived.
  J of AIDS and Human Retrovirology 16: 122-126, 19971997
Natural Conception in HIV-Negative Women with HIV-positive Partners,"
 Mandelbrot L., I. Heard, E. Henrion-Geant and R. Henrion
  Male to female transmission of HIV is infrequent during natural conception, which is "compatible with seroconversion rates in the order of 1 per 1000 episodes of unprotected intercourse reported in longitudinal studies of stable heterosexual couples as well as in studies of transmission through artificial insemination."
  The Lancet, Vol. 349 (March 22, 1997), pp. 885-89.1997