Dissident AIDS Database

EpidemiologySexual transmissionHomosexual intercourseAnal sex
Risk factors for seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus among male homosexuals.
 Kingsley LA, Kaslow R, Rinaldo CR, et al.
  the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, (MACS) the best, largest (about 5,000 men) : “receptive anal intercourse was the only significant risk factor for seroconversion to HIV, the risk ratio increasing from 3-fold for one partner to 18-fold for five or more partners…Receptive anal intercourse accounted for nearly all new HIV infections among the [2507] homosexual men enrolled in this study…”
  Lancet 1987;i:345-3481987
Male homosexual transmission of HIV-1.
 Caceres CF, van Griensven GJP.
  In a review of most, if not all, epidemiological studies conducted in gay men published in 1994, the authors concluded: "It can be said that the cited reports yield convincing evidence that (1) unprotected ano-genital receptive intercourse poses the highest risk for the sexual acquisition of HIV-1 infection."
  AIDS 1994;8:1051-1061.1994
Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
 Padian N, Marquis L, Francis DP, et al.
  “The total number of exposures to the index case (sexual contacts with ejaculation [with the HIV+ partner]) and the specific practice of anal intercourse, also with the infected partner, were associated with transmission. Neither condom use, total number of sexual partners since 1978, nor lifetime number of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with infection.”
  JAMA 1987, 258:788-90.1987
Determinants of retrovirus (HTLV-III) antibody and immunodeficiency conditions in homosexual men.
 Goedert JJ, Sarngadharan MG, Biggar RJ, et al
  “Of eight different sex acts, seropositivity correlated only with receptive anal intercourse...and with manual stimulation of the subject's rectum…HTLV-III seropositivity was also associated with frequent nitrite inhalant use during the 12 months before phlebotomy…and was inversely correlated with insertive anal intercourse” [note that receptive anal intercourse is associated with higher use of nitrite inhalants]
  Lancet 1984;2:711-61984
HIV infection among female partners of seropositive men in Brazil.
 Guimaraes MD, Munoz A, Boschi-Pinto C, Castilho EA.
  "A heterosexual partner study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from August 1990 to December 1991. The main objectives were to determine the rate of male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to determine risk factors. Male index cases were recruited according to the following criteria: 1) confirmed HIV positivity, 2) 18 years old or older; 3) heterosexual contact within the past year. Only female partners who reported not to have other risk factors but to have had sexual contact with the index case were invited to participate. Couples were interviewed for risk factors and had blood collected for laboratory studies. The overall prevalence of HIV infection was 45 percent among 204 female partners in the study. Using logistic regression, the authors found the following factors to be independently (p < 0.05) associated with HIV infection: 1) anal sex (odds ratio (OR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.87-7.45)..."
  Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:538-5471995
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City.
 Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Zang EA, et al
  "Data from this and previous studies have shown that receptive rectal intercourse, for example, is an important risk factor for HTLV-III [HIV] infection... We found no evidence that other forms of sexual activity contributed to the risk”
  JAMA 1986;255:2167-21721986
Role of the primary infection in epidemics of HIV infection in gay cohorts.
 Jacquez JA, Koopman JS, Simon CP, Longini IM Jr.
  A review of the data on infectivity per contact for transmission of the HIV suggests that the infectivity may be on the order of 0.1-0.3 per anal intercourse in the period of the initial infection, 10(-4) to 10(-3) in the long asymptomatic period, and 10(-3) to 10(-2) in the period leading into AIDS. The pattern of high contagiousness during the primary infection followed by a large drop in infectiousness may explain the pattern of epidemic spread seen in male homosexual cohorts in the early years of the epidemic.
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994 Nov;7(11):1169-841994
Transient antibody to lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human T-lymphotropic virus type III and T-lymphocyte abnormalities in the wife of a man who developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
 Burger H, Weiser B, Robinson WS, et al.
  The wife of a haemophilia man who, in addition to other sexual acts, practised anal intercourse was found to have a positive antibody test and low numbers of T4 cells. During 10 months of follow-up his wife remained clinically well, discontinued exposure exposure to semen, and then lost the LAV antibody, and regained a normal number of T-helper cells (T4 cells)
  Ann. Int. Med. 1985;103:545-7.1985
Risk factors for male to female transmission of HIV.
 European Study Group.
  The largest and best conducted studies in heterosexuals including the European Study Group have also shown that for women, the only practice leading to an increased risk of becoming HIV antibody positive is anal intercourse.
  British Medical Journal, 1989, 298, 411-414.1989
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 Moss, A.R., et al.
  It is the frequency of passive anal passive intercourse, not the number of partners which is important in the development of a positive antibody test and AIDS.
  Am. J. Epidemiol. 125, 1035-47 (1987).1987
Longitudinal study of homosexual couples discordant for HIV-1 antibodies in the Baltimore MACS Study.
 Palenicek, J., et al.
  It is the frequency of passive anal passive intercourse, not the number of partners which is important in the development of a positive antibody test and AIDS.
  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 5, 1204-11 (1992).1992
Viral Sex-The Nature of AIDS
 Goudsmit, G.
  It is the frequency of passive anal passive intercourse, not the number of partners which is important in the development of a positive antibody test and AIDS.
  Oxford University Press, New York, 19971997