|HIV||Isolation||Antigen test||Uncorrelation with antibody tests|
|HIV isolation may not correlate with clinical state or immunological function of respective HIV infected patients.|| ||Urano H et al.
| ||“p24 antigen was detected in 6 patients of group P [positive] and 2 patients of group N [HIV-negative]. ”|
| ||Int Conf AIDS. 1994 Aug;10(2):255.||1994|
|Relation Of The Course Of HIV Infection In Children To The Severity Of The Disease In Their Mothers At Delivery.|| ||Blanche S.
| ||“At the time of delivery, HIV-1 p24 antigen was detected in serum from 16 of 108 [HIV+] women (15%)”|
| ||NEJM. 1994 Feb 3;330(5):308-12.||1994|
|Epidemiology of vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection in Switzerland: results of a nationwide prospective study.|| ||Kind C et al.
| ||“Of 61 infected children tested 46 (75%) had at least one positive test for antigen”|
| ||Eur J Pediatr. 1992;151:442-8.||1992|
|A multicenter trial of oral zidovudine in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease.|| ||McKinney RE et al.
| ||“Baseline serum p24 antigen levels were measured in 71 patients. At entry, 37 (52%) were positive for the antigen...and 34 (48%) were negative [yet all were positive for HIV antibodies]”|
| ||NEJM. 1991 Apr 11;324(15):1018-25.||1991|
|HIV proteins in normal human placentae.|| ||Faulk WP, Labarrere CA.
| ||“Cryostat sections of human normal term placentae were …examined for HIV protein antigens gp120, p17, p24, and gp41. No evidence for gp41 was found. Antigens gp120 and p17 were identified in normal chorionic villi in vimentin-positive fibroblast-like cells and in endothelium, respectively. Antigen p24 was localized to HLA-DR positive cells that morphologically resembled macrophages in areas of villitis. [i.e. HIV proteins are found in uninfected human placentas!!]”|
| ||American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 1991;25:99-104.||1991|
|Ng V. Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins.|| ||1
| ||“HIV-1 p24 is the HIV-1 protein most prone to "false-positive" reactions”|
| ||Clin Chem. 1991;37(10):1667-8.||1991|
|Persistently negative HIV-1 antibody enzyme immunoassay screening results for patients with HIV-1 infection and AIDS: serologic, clinical, and virologic results.|| ||Sullivan PS, Schable C.
| ||“This report describes the field and laboratory investigation of eight patients who had clinical evidence of HIV infection, but repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening results in the course of their clinical care. In all patients, HIV infection was proven [sic] by other diagnostic methods [PCR/viral load, p24 antigen and culture techniques]...Patient 6...became acutely ill after vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella...[she had a] negative HIV EIA on 2 occasions, a positive HIV-1 p24 antigen result, and a positive HIV-1 DNA PCR result. Prior HIV EIA results were negative 2 years, 1 year and 2 weeks before hospitalization... Patient 2...HIV EIA result was negative during admission, but HIV infection was identified by HIV p24 antigen testing and DNA PCR...”|
| ||AIDS. 1999 Jan 14;13(1):89-96.||1999|
|A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of Zidovudine in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.|| ||Fischl MA et al.
| ||“205 subjects (of 406 tested (50%)) had detectable serum levels of HIV antigen before treatment [i.e. 50% were negative for HIV antigen, although positive for HIV antibodies]”|
| ||NEJM. 1990;323(15):1009-14.||1990|
|Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection.|| ||Coombs RW et al.
| ||“In only 45 percent of persons from whom we isolated plasma-associated HIV [by co-culture techniques] was p24 antigen detected in plasma or serum”|
| ||NEJM. 1989 Dec 14;321(24):1626-31.||1989|
|Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers.|| ||Rogers, M. F., Ou, C.-Y., Rayfield, M., Thomas, P. A., Schoenbaum, E. E., Abrams, E., Krasinski, K., Selwyn, P. A., Moore, J., Kaul, A., Grimm, K. T., Bamji, M., Schochetman, G.,
| ||“no infants, including those who later had AIDS, were positive for serum antigen [p24] during the neonatal period”|
| ||NEJM. 1989 Jun 22;320(25):1649-54.||1989|
|Viral dynamics in primary HIV-1 infection.|| ||Piatak M Jr et al.
| ||“Culturable virus in plasma was reduced to undetectable levels coincident with seroconversion in five of six patients, and was substantially reduced in the sixth. Circulating p24 antigen also decreased with seroconversion, even by use of immune complex dissociation tests. ”|
| ||Lancet. 1993 Apr 24;341:1099.||1993|
|Long-term symptomless HIV-1 infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor.|| ||Learmont J et al.
| ||“we identified a group of 6 subjects who had been infected [with HIV] through a single common [blood] donor...Throughout follow-up (range 6.8-10.1 years after infection), 5 of the [HIV antibody positive] recipients and the donor...remained clinically free of symptoms, with normal CD4 cell counts and no p24 antigenaemia...”|
| ||Lancet. 1992;340:863-7.||1992|
|Correlation between CD4 cell counts and cellular and plasma viral load in HIV-1-seropositive individuals.|| ||Venet A et al.
| ||"The comparison of p24 antigenaemia with plasma viral cultures was not clear-cut. Concordant data were found in 62 subjects...while discordant data was observed in 37”|
| ||AIDS. 1991;5:283-8.||1991|