|HIV||Isolation||Antigen test||Uncorrelation with viral load tests|
|Direct measurement of viraemia in patients infected with HIV-1 and its relationship to disease progression and zidovudine therapy.|| ||Semple M et al.
| ||“there were 16 sera from 30 viraemic patients which did not have detectable p24 antigen. As a consequence, p24 antigen concentration and HIV-1 RNA did not correlate well.”|
| ||J Med Virol. 1991;35:38-45.||1991|
|Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection.|| ||Daar ES, Little S, Pitt J, Santangelo J, Ho P, Harawa N, Kerndt P, Glorgi JV, Bai J, Gaut P, Richman DD, Mandel S, Nichols S
| ||The accuracy of p24 antigen testing was called into question : some people in the study cohorts were found to be positive for HIV antibodies on initial screening, and were described as having "chronic HIV-infection". The large majority of these people (82%) were negative for p24 antigen, which is a protein thought to be a specific and integral part of the virus. People with viral loads at least as high as 631,000 copies/mL were still negative for p24 antigen, which again raises the question of how much virus was really present in these people.|
| ||Ann Intern Med, January 2, 2001;134(1):25-9||2001|
|False-positive HIV-1 virus cultures using whole blood.|| ||Schupbach, J., Jendis, J. B., Bron, C., Boni, J. & Tomasik, Z.
| ||The whole blood cultures of 49/60 (82%) of "presumably uninfected but serologically indeterminate" individuals and 5/5 seronegative blood donors" were found positive for p24|
| ||AIDS 6:1545-1546. 1992||1992|
|Genomic instability and AIDS.|| ||Kozhemiakin, L. A. & Bondarenko, I. G.
| ||The "HIV proteins (p17, p24)" appear in the blood of patients (previously negative for all HIV markers) following "transfusions of HIV-negative blood and UV-irradiation of the autoblood"|
| ||Biochimiia 57:1417-1426. , 1992.||1992|
|False-positive human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with lupus erythematosus.|| ||Barthel HR, Wallace DJ.
| ||p24 is detected in a significant number (up to 36% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus)|
| ||Semin Arthritis Rheum 1993 Aug;23(1):1-7||1993|
|False-positive neutralizable HIV antigens detected in organ transplant recipients.|| ||Vincent, F., Belec, L., Glotz, D., Menoyo-Calonge, V., Dubost, A. & Bariety, J
| ||Detection of p24 has been also reported in organ transplant recipients. In one kidney recipient (the donor was negative for p24 antigen) who, 3 days following transplantation developed fever, weakness, myalgias, cough and diarrhoea, all "Bacteriological, parasitological and virological samples remained negative [including HIV PCR]. The only positive result was antigenaemia p24, positive with Abbot antigen kits in very high titers of 1000pg/ml for polyclonal and 41pg/ml for monoclonal assays. This antigenaemia was totally neutalizable with Abbot antiserum anti-p24...2 months after transplantation, all assays for p24-antigen became negative, without appearance of antibodies against HIV. Five months after transplantation our patient remains asymptomatic, renal function is excellent, p24 antigenaemia still negative and HIV antibodies still negative"|
| ||AIDS 7:741-742.1993.||1993|
|False-positive HIV antigens related to emergence of a 25-30kD proteins detected in organ recipients.|| ||Agbalika, F., Ferchal, F., Garnier, J. P., Eugene, M., Bedrossian, J. & Lagrange, P. H.
| ||Using two kits, the Abbot and Diagnostic Pasteur, in one study, p24 was detected transiently in 12/14 kidney recipients. Peak titres ranged from 850 to 200 000 pg/ml 7-27 days post- transplantation. Two heart and 5/7 bone marrow recipients were also positive, although the titres were lower and ranged from 140-750 pg/ml. Disappearance of p24 took longer in kidney (approximately 6 months) than in bone-marrow (approximately 4-6 weeks) recipients. According to the authors: "This may be related to differences in immunosuppression therapy". Discussing their findings they wrote: "The observation of a 25- 30kD protein [the French researchers report p24 as p25] binding to polyclonal anti-HIV human sera after immunoblots with reactive sera raises several questions. This protein could be related to a host immune response to grafts or transplants...Its early detection after transplantation might indicate the implications of immunosuppression therapy...The 25-30kD protein could therefore be compared with the p28 antigen recently described with human T-cell-related virus lymphotropic-endogenous sequence...The characterization of this 25-30kD protein may represent an important contribution to the detection of HIV-1-related endogenous retroviruses"|
| ||AIDS 6:959-962. 1992.||1992|