|AIDS Medications Extend Lives But Side Effects Are a Se…|| ||Eisner R.
| ||“Half the people who try the medications do not respond to them...”|
| ||ABC News. 2001 Jun 4||2001|
|Salvage therapy for HIV-1 infection - the challenge grows.|| ||Montaner J et al.
| ||“Amanda Mocroft (Royal Free Centre for HIV Medicine, London, UK) reported that rates of treatment failure in the EuroSIDA cohort were 50%, 70%, and 80% after first, second, and third courses, respectively. Results from several trials confirmed the poor response (about 30%) to salvage regimens in patients who had already taken a protease inhibitor. Previous use of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors lowered the response rate further (to about 15%)...Over the past year, the development of several promising drugs has been put on hold or stopped because of toxicity, unfavourable pharmacokinetics, and inadequate potency”|
| ||Lancet. 2000 Apr 22;335.||2000|
|Rapid Accumulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Lymphatic Tissue Reservoirs during Acute and Early HIV Infection: Implications for Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy.|| ||Shacker T et al.
| ||“These data suggest that a large pool of infectious virus is established soon after infection and that initiation of antiretroviral therapy when symptoms of primary HIV infection are recognized is unlikely to prevent substantial accumulation of virus in the FDC network...”|
| ||JID. 2000 Jan;181(1):354-7.||2000|
|Effects of zidovudine in 365 consecutive patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex|| ||Dournon E, Matheron S, Rozenbaum W, Gharakhanian S, Michon C, Girard P M, Perrone C, Salmon D, DeTruchis P, Leport C and the Claude Bernard Hospital AZT Study Group
| ||Zidovudine (AZT) is of some benefit for selected patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) or AIDS treated for up to 24 weeks. The activity and toxicity of oral AZT, 200 mg 4-hourly when possible, was evaluated in 365 consecutive patients with ARC (80) or AIDS (285) followed up for a mean of 31 weeks (range 2-52). A transient increase in body weight, Karnofsky index, and CD4 cell count was observed during the first months of therapy. However, by 6 months, these values had returned to their pretreatment levels and several opportunistic infections, malignancies, and deaths occurred. These disappointing results were partly related to the haematological toxicity of the drug, which led to interruption of treatment in many patients. Thus the benefits of AZT are limited to a few months for ARC and AIDS patients. At least for the most severely affected patients, reduced dosage of AZT may increase the therapeutic index.|
| ||Lancet 1988, 2 1297–1302||1988|
|Sexual Transmission and Propagation of SIV and HIV in Resting and Activated CD4+ T Cells.|| ||Zhang Z-Q et al.
| ||“Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in resting T cells. The infected proliferating cells correspond to the short-lived population that produces the bulk of HIV-1. Most of the HIV-1-infected resting T cells persisted after antiretroviral therapy.”|
| ||Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1353-7.||1999|
| ||“"This virus is a really smart actor," said Dr. Ann Collier, director of the AIDS Clinical Trial Unit at Harborview's Madison Clinic. Collier said about one-third of patients are resistant to the drugs within six months of starting treatment, and the proportion increases over time. Patients are often switched to new combinations of drugs, but their conditions often gradually deteriorate, she said.”|
| ||The Seattle Times. 1999 Nov 10;B1.||1999|
|Quantifying Residual HIV-1 Replication in Patients Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.|| ||Zhang L et al.
| ||“Considering the half-life of latently infected CD4 lymphocytes, researchers conclude that efficacious antiretroviral therapy may take years to eliminate such sources of HIV-1...The continued replication of HIV-1 in two patients seems to be due to the presence of drug-sensitive viruses within lymphoid tissues. We are unable, however, to explain why drug-sensitive HIV-1 is capable of replicating at low levels during treatment with three or four drugs.”|
| ||NEJM. 1999 May 27;340(21):1605-13.||1999|
|Monitoring HIV-1 treatment in immune-cell subsets with ultrasensitive fluorescence-in-situ hybridisation.|| ||Patterson BK et al.
| ||“In 3 of the 5 patients, the percentage of productively infected cells increased while on therapy”|
| ||Lancet. 1999 Jan 16;353(9148):211-2.||1999|
|The Big Question Now in Anti-HIV Therapy - When?.|| ||Levy JA et al.
| ||“we have three reasons to question the administration of combination therapy (also known as highly activated antiviral therapy, or HAART: -- The drugs do not eliminate virus-infected cells and thus cannot "cure." -- Long-term use of antiviral therapy, which can be toxic, may also lead to the emergence of resistant viruses. -- There is no evidence that early treatment has made a difference in overall disease progression. ”|
| ||San Francisco Chronicle.||1|